question two | MODERN IRISH WRITERS
All these philosophers struggled with issues and concepts that are the relationships between Didi and Gogo in Waiting for Godot, and between Krapp and the. Why, in relation, are Didi and Gogo forever stuck unchanging and waiting?' and find homework help for other Waiting for Godot questions at eNotes. Answer the first five general questions, then choose four questions (one from What is suggested about Gogo and Didi's relationship here at the end of Act 1.
Lucky kicks him violently in the shins…] Estragon: Vladimir [to Estragon] Show. Godot is about the stagnation of time, a play about the impossibility of tomorrow, because tomorrow is today, and today is yesterday. The way is desolate, the worn shoes are too tight or too big, the only thing to eat are carrots and turnips mixed with pocket lint, the branch beckons suicide, and the inevitability of setting sun is the only thing that makes the silence of day tolerable Godot as night?
Down in the hole, lingeringly, the grave digger puts on the forceps. We have time to grow old. The air is full of our cries. And yet, somehow, we manage to laugh.
Somehow, we find in this tender relationship between these old and tattered clowns that which allows us to Godot has been categorized as absurdist, existential, and tragicomic, but between the laughter and the tears, the screaming and the silence, the day and the night, there is a profound and important ethical dimension. Perhaps the central theme is relationship, conversation, helping others, and, that most foundational of ethical moments, friendship. A boy then arrives, purporting to be a messenger sent from Godot to tell the pair that Godot will not be coming that evening "but surely tomorrow".
After the boy departs, the moon appears, and the two men verbally agree to leave and find shelter for the night, but they merely stand without moving. Act II[ edit ] It is daytime again and Vladimir begins singing a recursive round about the death of a dog, but twice forgets the lyrics as he sings.
Vladimir comments that the formerly bare tree now has leaves and tries to confirm his recollections of yesterday against Estragon's extremely vague, unreliable memory. Vladimir then triumphantly produces evidence of the previous day's events by showing Estragon the wound from when Lucky kicked him. Noticing Estragon's barefootedness, they also discover his previously forsaken boots nearby, which Estragon insists are not his, although they fit him perfectly. With no carrots left, Vladimir is turned down in offering Estragon a turnip or a radish.
He then sings Estragon to sleep with a lullaby before noticing further evidence to confirm his memory: Lucky's hat still lies on the ground. This leads to his waking Estragon and involving him in a frenetic hat-swapping scene.
Waiting for Godot - Wikipedia
The two then wait again for Godot, while distracting themselves by playfully imitating Pozzo and Lucky, firing insults at each other and then making up, and attempting some fitness routines—all of which fail miserably and end quickly.
Suddenly, Pozzo and Lucky reappear, but the rope is much shorter than during their last visit, and Lucky now guides Pozzo, rather than being controlled by him. As they arrive, Pozzo trips over Lucky and they together fall into a motionless heap. Estragon sees an opportunity to exact revenge on Lucky for kicking him earlier. The issue is debated lengthily until Pozzo shocks the pair by revealing that he is now blind and Lucky is now mute.
Pozzo further claims to have lost all sense of time, and assures the others that he cannot remember meeting them before, but also does not expect to recall today's events tomorrow. His commanding arrogance from yesterday appears to have been replaced by humility and insight. His parting words—which Vladimir expands upon later—are ones of utter despair.
Alone, Vladimir is encountered by apparently the same boy from yesterday, though Vladimir wonders whether he might be the other boy's brother. This time, Vladimir begins consciously realising the circular nature of his experiences: Vladimir seems to reach a moment of revelation before furiously chasing the boy away, demanding that he be recognised the next time they meet. Estragon awakes and pulls his boots off again.
He and Vladimir consider hanging themselves once more, but when they test the strength of Estragon's belt hoping to use it as a nooseit breaks and Estragon's trousers fall down. They resolve tomorrow to bring a more suitable piece of rope and, if Godot fails to arrive, to commit suicide at last.
Again, they decide to clear out for the night, but, again, neither of them makes any attempt to move. Characters[ edit ] Beckett refrained from elaborating on the characters beyond what he had written in the play. He once recalled that when Sir Ralph Richardson "wanted the low-down on Pozzo, his home address and curriculum vitaeand seemed to make the forthcoming of this and similar information the condition of his condescending to illustrate the part of Vladimir I told him that all I knew about Pozzo was in the text, that if I had known more I would have put it in the text, and that was true also of the other characters.
They are never referred to as tramps in the text, though are often performed in such costumes on stage. When told by Vladimir that he should have been a poet, Estragon says he was, gestures to his rags, and asks if it were not obvious. There are no physical descriptions of either of the two characters; however, the text indicates that Vladimir is possibly the heavier of the pair. The bowlers and other broadly comic aspects of their personas have reminded modern audiences of Laurel and Hardywho occasionally played tramps in their films.
Comedy and the Movies. Estragon "belongs to the stone",  preoccupied with mundane things, what he can get to eat and how to ease his physical aches and pains; he is direct, intuitive. He finds it hard to remember but can recall certain things when prompted, e.
He continually forgets, Vladimir continually reminds him; between them they pass the time. Vladimir's life is not without its discomforts too but he is the more resilient of the pair.
While the two characters are temperamentally opposite, with their differing responses to a situation, they are both essential as demonstrated in the way Vladimir's metaphysical musings were balanced by Estragon's physical demands. This became "Adam" in the American edition. Beckett's only explanation was that he was "fed up with Catullus". What's more, since the second act is a subtly different reprise of the first, he has written a play in which nothing happens, twice.
In the first stage production, which Beckett oversaw, both are "more shabby-genteel than ragged Vladimir at least is capable of being scandalised She explained how it begins with a trembling, which gets more and more noticeable, until later the patient can no longer speak without the voice shaking. So I said, 'That sounds exactly what I need.
As such, since the first appearance of the duo, the true slave had always been Pozzo. His rhetoric has been learned by rote. Pozzo's "party piece" on the sky is a clear example: Little is learned about Pozzo besides the fact that he is on his way to the fair to sell his slave, Lucky. He presents himself very much as the Ascendancy landlord, bullying and conceited.
His pipe is made by Kapp and PetersonDublin's best-known tobacconists their slogan was "The thinking man's pipe" which he refers to as a " briar " but which Estragon calls a " dudeen " emphasising the differences in their social standing.
He confesses to a poor memory but it is more a result of an abiding self-absorption. That's why he overdoes things These were things Beckett said, psychological terms he used.
Lucky is the absolutely subservient slave of Pozzo and he unquestioningly does his every bidding with "dog-like devotion". Lucky speaks only once in the play and it is a result of Pozzo's order to "think" for Estragon and Vladimir.
MODERN IRISH WRITERS
Pozzo and Lucky have been together for sixty years and, in that time, their relationship has deteriorated. Lucky has always been the intellectually superior but now, with age, he has become an object of contempt: Despite his horrid treatment at Pozzo's hand however, Lucky remains completely faithful to him.
Even in the second act when Pozzo has inexplicably gone blind, and needs to be led by Lucky rather than driving him as he had done before, Lucky remains faithful and has not tried to run away; they are clearly bound together by more than a piece of rope in the same way that Didi and Gogo are "[t]ied to Godot".
- With a Little Help from My Friend: Godot and Friendship
Beckett struggled to retain the French atmosphere as much as possible, so that he delegated all the English names and places to Lucky, whose own name, he thought, suggested such a correlation. The boy in Act I, a local lad, assures Vladimir that this is the first time he has seen him.
He says he was not there the previous day. He confirms he works for Mr. Godot as a goatherd. His brother, whom Godot beats, is a shepherd. Godot feeds both of them and allows them to sleep in his hayloft. The boy in Act II also assures Vladimir that it was not he who called upon them the day before. He insists that this too is his first visit. When Vladimir asks what Godot does the boy tells him, "He does nothing, sir.
This boy also has a brother who it seems is sick but there is no clear evidence to suggest that his brother is the boy that came in Act I or the one who came the day before that.
No further need to worry. No further need to worry, simply wait. We could do our exercises, our movements, our elevations, our relaxations, our elongations, our relaxations to warm us up, to calm us down. The seamless back-and-forth of their communication makes me wonder if Vladimir and Estragon could perhaps be a single character manifesting in two separate voices. They are waiting for someone and the conversations they make while they are waiting seem to jump around. Before that Vladimir was talking about repenting.
Then Estragon falls asleep and Vladimir wakes him up and then they start talking about a nightmare that Estragon had. While they wait for Godot, they start to get restless and it shows through their conversations. It seems to be a habit, a pattern in their relationship. They also finish each others sentence.
Also Vladimir seems to always shut Estragon down, whenever he gets deep in a conversation.