Publikationen – Departement Biologie | ETH Zürich
Francis, Kevin; Sapienza, Paul J.; Lee, Andrew L.; Kohen, Amnon .. Quantitative structure-activity relationships by neural networks and inductive logic two types of PfDHFR enzymes and can be useful to guide the design of new inhibitors. Bacon, David J.; Tang, Doug; Salas, Carola; Roncal, Norma; Lucas, Carmen;. Ivelyn Lee, also known as Li Jia Ying, is a Taiwanese actress. Born on February 14 Sanlih Drama Awards Best Kiss Award (with Danson Tang) - Winner . Otôsan no backdrop is a comedy film directed by Toshio Lee. . Tom Collier has had a great relationship with Daisy, but when he decides to marry, it is starring Jon Jacobs, Charlotte Lewis, Tina Wiseman, Ivelin Giro and Terry Camilleri. Little Treasure is a American action drama starring Ted Danson, Margot.
However, the region predicted to be a potential MSD is the highly hydrophilic Kennedy sequence and is least likely to become a MSD based on several algorithms. Further analysis revealed the induction of membrane permeability during membrane fusion, allowing the membrane-impermeable ligand and antibodies to cross the membrane. Therefore, we cannot completely rule out the possible artifacts. Addition of membrane fusion inhibitors or alterations of the MSD sequence decreased the induction of membrane permeability.
The degree of the augmentation of membrane permeability we observed was dependent on the membrane fusion and sequence of the MSD. Broadly neutralizing antibodies from that series bind to both the fully exposed N-HR trimer, representing the pre-hairpin intermediate state of gp41, and to partially-exposed N-HR helices within the context of the gp41 six-helix bundle.
While the affinities of the Fabs for pre-hairpin intermediate mimetics vary by only 2 to fold between neutralizing and non-neutralizing antibodies, differences in inhibition of viral entry exceed three orders of magnitude. Here we compare the binding of neutralizing and non-neutralizing antibodies, differing in only four positions within the CDR-H2 binding loop, in Fab and single chain variable fragment ScFv formats, to several pre-hairpin intermediate and six-helix bundle constructs of gp Residues 56 and 58 of the mini-antibodies are shown to be crucial for neutralization activity.
The binding stoichiometry is one six-helix bundle to one Fab or three ScFvs. We postulate that neutralization by the antibody is achieved by binding to a continuum of states along the fusion pathway from the pre-hairpin intermediate all the way to the formation of the six-helix bundle, but prior to irreversible fusion between viral and cellular membranes.
These include movie-mode unbending, refinement over sub-tiles of the images in order to locally refine the sample tilt geometry, implementation of different CTF correction schemes, and an iterative method to apply known constraints in the real and reciprocal space to approximate amplitudes and phases in the so-called missing cone regions. This disease is widespread across all cassava-growing regions in Africa.
The necrotic lesions on storage roots, which make them unfit for consumption or processing, further exacerbate economic losses due to CBSD. Efforts aiming at controlling incidence of both CMD and CBSD in Africa have focused on screening for resistance in both cultivated and wild species of cassava and subsequent introgression of resistance into farmer-preferred cultivars.
However, high heterozygosity and outcrossing in cassava and the limited diversity of these sources of resistance challenge development of durable resistance to CMD and CBSD via conventional breeding approach.
Extending this characterization to include other CMG species identified elsewhere in Africa, highly conserved genomic regions were identified. CMGs have a high propensity for mutation and recombination that can influence their evolution. Besides, the relative contribution of natural selection in shaping genetic variation and thus evolution of geminiviruses remains poorly studied.
Due to the high genetic variation present in CMGs, developing durable and broad-spectrum resistance in the field is challenging. Evidence of strong negative selection in the Rep and CP genes of cassava mosaic geminiviruses makes them suitable targets for engineering resistance to geminiviruses in cassava.
In this chapter, we confirmed the absence of CBSD in farmer fields in the four cassava-producing regions in Ghana.
Furthermore, screening of other local cassava cultivars could lead to identification of sources of CBSD resistance.
The use of complementary approaches such as transgenic technology is encouraged to speed up development of CBSD-resistant cassava for farmers. In the third chapter, I present results on the induction of friable embryogenic calli FEC in eleven cassava cultivars from Ghana. FEC induction in cassava is highly genotype-dependent making it difficult to achieve in several African cassava cultivars.
Using the standard protocol for cassava transformation developed in our laboratory, we successfully transformed and regenerated plantlets of ADI The application of flow cytometry for routine assessment of FEC ploidy levels was carried out to ensure that quality FEC tissues are used for genetic transformation.
In the fourth chapter, I present results showing development and successful transfer of CMD resistance into a farmer-preferred cassava cultivar, ADI Using the RNAi-based approach that has achieved some success in developing resistance against both RNA and DNA viruses, we tested the single and multiple target approach for engineering resistance against mixed CMG infections present in cassava fields.
Double targeting of AC1 and BC1 resulted in a shift in viral population in cuttings multiplied from scions inoculated with mixed CMG population. Near immunity to mixed CMG infection achieved in transgenic dsAC1 line was maintained in cuttings multiplied from scions inoculated with field infected rootstocks. The work presented in this thesis demonstrates successful transfer of CMD resistance through transgenic technologies into a cassava cultivar preferred by farmers in Ghana.
The identification of high levels of resistance against mixed CMG infection in this local cultivar, ADI dsAC1 line encourages field screening to evaluate durability of resistance engineered. More importantly, transfer of transgenic technologies to laboratories in Africa such as the Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute BNARI in Ghana through building of capacity is necessary to encourage and sustain adoption of transgenic technologies in Africa. Bologna, Alexis Sarazin, Christopher A.
Allain and Olivier Voinnet Molecular Plant, vol. Naismith Science Advances, vol. This and the planarity of the peptide bond arise from the delocalization of the lone pair of electrons on the nitrogen atom into the adjacent carbonyl.
While chemical methylation of an amide bond uses a strong base to generate the imidate, OphA, the precursor protein of the fungal peptide macrocycle omphalotin A, self-hypermethylates amides at pH 7 using S-adenosyl methionine SAM as cofactor.
The structure of OphA reveals a complex catenane-like arrangement in which the peptide substrate is clamped with its amide nitrogen aligned for nucleophilic attack on the methyl group of SAM.
Biochemical data and computational modeling suggest a base-catalyzed reaction with the protein stabilizing the reaction intermediate. Backbone N-methylation of peptides enhances their protease resistance and membrane permeability, a property that holds promise for applications to medicinal chemistry.
Cassava post-harvest physiological deterioration: From triggers to symptoms Ima M.
gp41 cytoplasmic domains: Topics by hdwallpaperfree.info
BMJ Publishing Group, This ecosystem is known to be shaped by many factors, including climate, geography, host nutrition, lifestyle and medication. Thus, knowledge of varying populations with different habits is important for a better understanding of the microbiome.
Design We therefore conducted a metagenomic analysis of intestinal microbiota from Kazakh donors, recruiting 84 subjects, including male and female healthy subjects and metabolic syndrome MetS patients aged 25—75 years, from the Kazakh administrative centre, Astana.
We characterise and describe these microbiomes, the first deep-sequencing cohort from Central Asia, in comparison with a global dataset individuals from five countries on three continentsand explore correlations between microbiota, clinical and laboratory parameters as well as with nutritional data from Food Frequency Questionnaires.
Results We observe that Kazakh microbiomes are relatively different from both European and East Asian counterparts, though similar to other Central Asian microbiomes, with the most striking difference being significantly more samples falling within the Prevotella-rich enterotype, potentially reflecting regional diet and lifestyle. We further observe gut microbiome features that distinguish MetS patients from controls eg, significantly reduced Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio, Bifidobacteria and Subdoligranulum, alongside increased Prevotellathough these overlap little with previously published reports and thus may reflect idiosyncrasies of the present cohort.
Conclusion Taken together, this exploratory study describes gut microbiome data from an understudied population, providing a starting point for further comparative work on biogeography and research on widespread diseases. A hydrophobic low-complexity region regulates aggregation of the yeast pyruvate kinase Cdc19 into amyloid-like aggregatesin vitro Erica Grignaschi, Gea Cereghetti, Fulvio Grigolato, Marie R.