Kublai Khan - HISTORY
Demystified · Quizzes · Galleries · Lists · On This Day · Biographies · Newsletters Kublai Khan's ascendancy in marked a definite change in Mongol Yeke Mongghol Ulus (“Great Mongol Nation”) adopted by Genghis Khan about the companionship of nökör relations was not enough to amalgamate the. Did you know that as many as % of the total world population might be descendants of Genghis Khan? A study carried out a while back found that this lege. Read and learn for free about the following article: Marco Polo. they had an audience with the most powerful ruler of the day, Kublai Khan, grandson of the founding emperor, Genghis Khan. . Practice: Quiz: Exploration & Interconnection.
Many tombstones with a bilingual Turkic and Chinese inscription have been preserved, but none of these believers seems to have been Chinese by origin; a census taken about in Zhenjiang in the present-day province of Jiangsu lists the Nestorians together with foreign nationalities.
The number of Nestorian Christians in China was so great that in a special agency for their supervision was established in Dadu. Manichaeismwhich had spread to China under the Tang, became extinct as an organized religion under the Yuan, but some Manichaean communities were probably absorbed by messianic Buddhist sects, such as the White Lotus sect, a group that attracted many followers among the Chinese lower classes.
Confucianism Confucianism was perceived by the Mongols as a Chinese religion, and it had mixed fortunes under their rule. The teachings of the Neo-Confucian school of Zhu Xi from the Song period were introduced to the Mongol court at Zhongdu in the late s but were confined to limited circles there and in northern China.
Confucian scholars enjoyed the benefits extended to the clergy of all religions, but they were dealt a strong blow when the literary examinations were discontinued following the Mongol conquest. For many centuries the examinations, based on Confucian texts, had been the basis for the selection of officials and for their privileged position within the state and society. Under their stewardship a certain Confucianization took place in government and education.
Chinese rituals were performed for a while in the dynastic temple taimiaoerected in Zhongdu in State sacrifices were offered to Confuciusand the study of the Classics was encouraged. However, many of the rites observed at the court that were either Tibetan Buddhist or inherited from the Mongol nomadic past were continued. The emperor Buyantu reigned —20one of the most Sinicized Mongol rulers, reintroduced the examination system inbut it remains doubtful how well the examinations functioned.
They certainly did not guarantee an official career, as those under the Song and, to a certain extent, under the Jin had done. The system of the Yuan, as introduced inprovided different types of curricula for Mongols, other foreigners semurenand Chinese; also, the requirements were different: Chinese had to show their complete mastery of the curriculum, whereas Mongols and other foreigners had to give only a mediocre performance.
This inequality was even formalized for the candidates who were to be admitted to the state academy guozijian.
The first examinations were held in the presence of the emperor inand, of the persons granted the title of doctor jinshi75 were Mongols, 75 were other foreigners, 75 were northern Chinese hanrenand 75 came from southern China; they all received official positions within the bureaucracy, Mongols the higher and Chinese the lower posts.
The positions of power within the hierarchy remained in the hands of the Mongols and other foreigners.
Under Buyantu, for the first time the interpretation and commentaries of the Neo-Confucian school were made obligatory. This cemented Neo-Confucian ideology not only among the Chinese literati who wished to pass an examination but also for future generations. Chinese Confucian orthodoxy from the 14th to the 19th century therefore rested largely on the foundations it had received under the Yuan.
In spite of all this, Classical scholarship under the Yuan did not produce a single remarkable work but struggled under an adverse political and intellectual climate. Striving to preserve their sacred tradition, the Confucian scholars were content with expounding the doctrines laid down by the Song philosophers, seeking to harmonize the different philosophical issues and points of view rather than exploring new horizons.
Literature Chinese literature of the period also showed conservative tendencies.
Poetry composition remained a favourite pastime of the educated class, including the Sinicized scholars of Mongol, Central Asian, and western Asian origins, but no great works or stylistic innovations were created.
During the last chaotic decades of the Yuan, some notable poets emerged, such as the versatile Yang Weizhen and the bold and unconventional Gao Qi. Many prose works dealing with contemporary events and persons were written under the Yuan, but these are notable for their content, not their literary merit.
Surprisingly harsh criticism and satire against the Mongols and also undisguised Song loyalism found open expression, presumably because the Mongols were uninterested in what the Chinese wrote in Chinese and, moreover, were mostly unable to read it. Some writers collected rare or interesting and piquant items and transmitted many aspects of Song culture to future generations.
The lament for the refinement and grandeur of the Song is a constant theme in Yuan writings. During the early Yuan period, the traditional Chinese official historiography was restored under the charge of the Hanlin Academywhich sponsored the compilation of the official dynastic histories of the Song, Liao, and Jin states conquered by the Mongols and undertook the compilation of the reign chronicles shilu and other governmental compendiums.
The major achievement of official historiography was the compilation —33 of the Jingshi dadian, a repository of juan chapters of official documents and laws; the text is now lost. Private historiography, especially works on the events of the Song, fared rather poorly under the Yuan because of the adverse political and intellectual climate. In urban society a literature in the vernacular language began to flourish, untrammeled by rigid norms of formalistic or ideological orthodoxy.
Novels and stories were written for the amusement of a wide-reading public, and dramatic literature reached such a peak in Yuan China that later literary criticism regarded the Yuan as the classical age for operatic arias, or qu a word that is also used for a full opera, with arias and chanted recitatives.
This phenomenon may perhaps be considered as evidence that under the Yuan a certain urbanization took place and something like a bourgeoisie emerged, because dramatic literature and colloquial novels found their clientele chiefly among the merchant and artisan classes. Foreigners, chiefly of Turkic or Persian origin, also contributed to Chinese literature under the Yuan.
They wrote poetry and painted in the Chinese way in order to distinguish themselves in fields where they could gain prestige among the educated Chinese. All the foreigners who wrote in Chinese seem to have avoided any reference to their foreign origin or creed. Nothing, in fact, could be more Chinese than their productions. Even foreigners who, like the Persians, came from a country with a considerable literary tradition of its own never attempted to introduce their native forms, subject matter, or religions.
No literary symbiosis seemed possible, and, although China was exposed to more external influences under the Yuan than ever before, Chinese literature shows little effect from such contacts with the outside world. It is perhaps symptomatic that under the Yuan no literary works from other civilizations were translated into Chinese and that practically no translations of Chinese Classical and historical works into Mongol have survived.
There seemed to be only the alternatives of complete rejection of Chinese civilization, as practiced by most Mongols, or wholesale absorption by Chinese culture. The arts Conservatism played a dominant role in the arts during the Mongol period. Song, Liao, and Jin ceramic types were continued, often altered only by increased bulk, while the great artistic achievement of the era, blue-and-white wareprobably derived from non-imperial sources. Government-sponsored Buddhist sculpture often attained high artistic standards, preserving the realism and powerful expression of Tang and Song traditions, while in the finest sculpture of the time, such as the reliefs at Juyong Pass north of Dadu —45this was combined with a flamboyant surface decor and a striking dramatization better suited to foreign taste than to the increasingly restrained Chinese aesthetic.
Conservatism also tempered the private arts of calligraphy and painting: Conservatism, however, often took the form of a creative revival that combed the past for sources of inspiration and then artistically transformed them into a new idiom. In calligraphy, Zhao Mengfu gave new impetus to the 4th-century style of Wang Xizhiwhich then became a standard for Chinese writing and book printing for centuries. In painting, Zhao and his contemporary Qian Xuan helped to complete the development of a distinctively amateur style that ushered in a new phase in the history of Chinese painting.
Their work did not continue that of the previous generation but ranged widely over the available past tradition, and past styles rather than observed objects became the subject of artistic interpretation. The naturalism of Song painting gave way to calligraphically inspired abstractions. Paintings became closely linked in style to the written inscriptions that appeared upon them with increasing frequency and prominence. Skillful professional techniques and overt visual attractiveness were avoided, replaced by deliberate awkwardness and an intellectualized flavour.
Their works were done for private purposes, often displaying or concealing personal and political motives, to be understood only by fellow literati through the subtle allusions of their subject matter, stylistic references, or inscriptions.
Courtesy of the National Palace Museum, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China Naturalistic painting styles also continued in popularity throughout the first two-thirds of the period, painted by such important artists as Li Kan and Ren Renfa.
Perpetuating northern traditions of the Tang and Song periods, these styles were practiced chiefly by scholar-officials associated with the court at the capital. Several members of the Mongol royal family became major patrons or collectors of such conservative styles, although imperial patronage remained slight in comparison with earlier periods. The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City, Missouri; purchase Nelson Trust In the latter third of the dynasty, with a sharp decline in the practice of painting by scholar-officials and northerners, Yuan painting was increasingly represented by the innovative approach of Zhao Mengfu as practiced by reclusive scholars from the Suzhou -Wuxing area.
As the Russian Empire annexed Turkic polities, their Genghizid rulers frequently entered the Russian service. For instance, Kuchum 's descendants became Russified as the Tsarevichs of Siberia. All these families asserted their Genghisid lineage. The Emperors of the Qing dynasty and the Emperor of Manchukuo were also indirect descendants by Qasar, a younger brother of Genghis Khan.
Eastern European gateways[ edit ] After the Mongol invasion of Rus'the Rurik dynasty rulers of Russian principalities were eager to obtain political advantages for themselves and their countries by marrying into the House of Genghis. Alexander Nevsky was adopted by Batu Khan as his son.
On the other hand, petty Mongol princelings of Genghisid stock very rarely settled in Russia. For instance, Berke 's nephew adopted the Christian name Peter and founded St. Peter's Monastery in Rostovwhere his descendants were long prominent as boyars.
Theodore Stratelates, the patron saint of Fyodor the Black, as illustrated in his personal Gospel Book. The issue of three Russian-Mongol marriages may be traced down to the present. The most famous was the marriage of St. Fyodor the Blacklater proclaimed a patron saint of Yaroslavlto a daughter of the Mongol khan Mengu-Timur. Male-line descendants of Fyodor's marriage to the Tatar princess include all the later rulers of Yaroslavl and two dozens princely families such as the ShakhovskoyLvovor Prozorovskyamong otherswhich passed Genghis genes to other aristocratic families of Russia.
GlebPrince of Beloozeroa grandson of Konstantin of Rostovwas another Rurikid prince influential at the Mongol court. This time they traveled by sea in Chinese ships and, after many difficulties, succeeded in delivering the princess.
Before they could reach Venice, however, Kublai Khan died on February 18,which allowed local rulers to reassert themselves and demand payment from traders. Consequently, the Polos were forced to hand over 4, Byzantine coins, a significant portion of their fortune, to the local government of a city on the Black Sea.
1 in men direct descendants of Genghis Khan - Gene Expression
Return The Polos returned to Venice inhaving been away 24 years. Their enthusiastic biographer told stories, which may have been gossip, that when they returned they were wearing Mongolian clothing and could hardly remember their native language.
Their relatives had thought them long dead. But when they produced a small fortune in gems rubies, sapphires, garnets, diamonds, and emeraldswhich had been sewn into the hems of their Mongolian garments, they were warmly welcomed.
Soon Venice was at war with its rival city-state, Genoa, on the west coast of Italy. As was custom for a wealthy merchant, Marco Polo financed his own war galley. He was captured during a naval battle and ended up in prison in Genoa. By chance, one of his cellmates, Rusticello from Pisa, had experience writing romantic novels.
As Polo entertained everyone with his tales of traveling to China, Rusticello wrote them down in a French dialect. The couple had three daughters in quick succession.
He spent his remaining days as a businessman, working from home. He died there at almost 70 years of age, on January 8,and was buried under the church of San Lorenzo, though his tomb has now vanished. It could be circulated only one copy at a time, since printing in Europe did not begin until almost years later. About to early manuscripts — hand-printed and fragmentary versions of The Travels — survive, and every one of them is different.
The earliest readers were scholars, monks, and noblemen. It took more than a century for the book to become part of mainstream European consciousness. Few texts have provoked more controversy than The Travels of Marco Polo.