Evolution Basics: Coevolution and Predator / Prey “Arms Races”
Bible verses about Satan as Predator Verse 26 reveals her predatory nature; she preys upon the precious lives of her victims like a cat preys on birds. . Ultimately, if we use our relationship with God properly, the confidence in Christian. Opposite of predator, you have prey — the animals predators hunt and eat. The relationship between predators and prey is often described as the balance of. As in many subfields of ecology, the science behind predator-prey including parasitism and herbivory within the broad definition of predation.
Predators are animals that eat other animals. They're not bad guys. They're just creatures trying to feed themselves; they get hungry just like you and me.
Predator-Prey Interactions - Ecology - Oxford Bibliographies
They don't have the option of going to the grocery store or the drive-in. The Role of Predators Predators are part of a food chainthe process of passing energy from one organism to the next. Plants are the first link in the food chain; they use the sun's energy to make food. Plants are called the producers. Plant eaters, also called herbivores, enter the picture next.
Predators such as birds and foxes join the food chain by eating the plant eaters and are known as primary consumers. These predators may become food for the next animal up the chain. Predators that eat primary consumers are known as secondary consumers, which are also eaten by tertiary consumers or quaternary consumers. All of these are just layers of animals that eat from the lower layers.
Finally you have your apex predator. This is the predator at the top of the food chain. Most natural communities have several food chains that interconnect. This is called a food web. When a food web is drawn, it looks like a pyramid with the apex predator at the top and the plants eaters at the bottom.
Plant eaters are the most abundant part of the web. A food chain or a food web allows a small amount of the sun's energy to be passed along through each animal. When an animal dies, it decomposesor breaks down, and provides the soil with nutrients that help plants to transform the sun's energy into food once again. Balance of Nature The relationship between predators and prey is often described as the balance of nature.
A natural ecosystem does have a degree of balance — the number of plants and animals in an ecosystem tends to remain within a certain limit, which is not too great or not too small. Predators, however, are not the only factor that affects a population. A variety of things cause the abundance of a species, including predators, food availability, the competition with other species, disease, and even the weather.
It is said that the predators in a particular area control the populations of prey species. In this way, the prey species won't overpopulate and destroy the habitat.
This seems logical enough, but it is too simple to fully explain what goes on in nature. One thing to remember is that populations of predators and prey do not remain constant. There are many factors which cause their respective numbers to rise and fall. Where Do Predators Live? Predators can be found on any continent of the world.
Hot desert climates, icy cold polar climates, rainforests, jungles, mountain tops, valleys, oceans, and lakes. Predators are found in nearly every habitat known to us.
Vertebrate Predators Animals with an internal skeleton made of bone are called vertebrates.
Vertebrates include mammals, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and fish. Although vertebrates represent only a very small percentage of all animals, their size and mobility often allow them to dominate their environment.
Invertebrate Predators Animals that do not have a back bone are called invertebrates. Invertebrates are cold-blooded — this means their body temperature depends on the temperature of their environment. Some major groups of invertebrates include amoebas, sponges, jellyfish, corals, tapeworms, flukes, insects, arachnids, crustaceans, mollusks, and echinoderms.
There are more species of invertebrates than any other group on the earth. Learn more about invertebrates and find out about the kinds of animals that fall into this category by visiting The National Wildlife Federation.
The Venus fly trap is one you've probably heard of. They are small plants found in North and South Carolina.
They grow in nutrient poor soil, so they need insects to provide what they need to survive. In Idaho, we have two carnivorous plants, sundews and bladderworts. They can be found in bogs near wetlands. Each plant has unique ways to catch and eat food.
To learn more about carnivorous plants, visit botany. Hunting Strategies The way a predator hunts, catches and kills food is determined by many factors such as the adaptations of the predator and the prey, and the type of habitat they live in.
The strategies commonly used by predators are: The Chase Hawks are among the many predators that catch their prey by chasing it. Chasing takes both time and effort to make a successful capture. To be successful, predators that chase their prey must concentrate on species that will provide enough nutrition to offset the energy burned while chasing. This is one reason why the hawk tends to eat more rodents and birds than grasshoppers.
Grasshoppers just don't provide enough food value to justify the effort it takes to catch them.
The Stalk Herons use a different technique, the stalk. Standing motionless in shallow water or wading slowly along the shore, the heron patiently searches for prey. When a heron sees its prey it captures it with a quick lunge of its long, sharp beak.
This method does not require much energy. The downfall is the amount of time it takes to search for food. A stalking predator can afford to choose smaller prey and still meet its energy requirements. The Ambush The alligator prefers to lie still and wait.
This method of hunting requires little effort, but chances of getting food are low. The cold-blooded alligator has minimal energy requirements. It can get by with infrequent meals. Most ambush hunters are fairly small because a successful ambush depends on the predator avoiding detection until it strikes. I am thinking of the whole animal kingdom suffering. Perhaps it is ruefully ironic that only a conscious mind could truly appreciate the suffering of an animal.
I pray that animals are not conscious of their pain. They certainly respond to what looks like pain.
- Evolution Basics: Coevolution and Predator / Prey “Arms Races”
Am I empathizing with the animal's pain because part of my fallen nature is in a way, animal? Animals were beautifully created machines.
A pain impulse would simply go to the brain as any other external signal. The brain would route the signal to provide the appropriate response, etc. I have a dog now, which has changed things. I do not have children, but I imagine the experience would further change my views.
I feel a horror for the future death of my dog. Nature is often called "red in tooth and claw" and the quotes above point out the emotional difficulty this creates for humans. We seen the vivid cases of a lion biting the neck of a Thompson gazelle, or the Ichneumon spider example given above which is technically incorrect--the Ichneumon is an insect order of wasps, not spidersor the diagrams of big-bigger-biggest fish eating one another in a food chain lesson. We see chimpanzees often portrayed as emotionally deep tear the arm out of its socket of a captured bonobo money and then eat it with the bonobo screaming there [ PH: We see killer whales, playing with their seal pup food, throwing it back and forth like a beach ball while the terrified pup is still alive [NS: We know that foxes will chase and capture the same shrew, just to let it go and repeat the process [ CS: The article also considers the less typical and more integrative aspects of predator-prey interactions, such as their physiological and neurological mechanisms and their relevance for questions associated with conservation.
In addition, this article will consider the validity of including parasitism and herbivory within the broad definition of predation.
A great deal of debate is ongoing as to whether these two ecological interactions possess similar enough qualities with predation to be characterized as one phenomenon. Those sections of this article will cover this debate and provide the reader with resources with which to consider this question. General Overviews To acquire a broad overview of the field of predator-prey ecology, one should begin by examining several excellent reviews and general resources on the subject.
A great starting point for researchers interested in an introduction to predator-prey ecology is Barbosa and Castellanoswhich examines the subject from behavioral, population, and applied perspectives. For a more detailed approach, Lima and Dill provides a readable synthesis of behavioral trade-offs involved in predator-prey interactions, one that is broadened in ecological scope in Lima and, written later, Chase, et al.
Dawkins and Krebs provides an introduction to the evolution of the predator-prey arms race, while Abrams provides a critical approach to the arms race using a largely theoretical background for the predator-prey interaction, especially in terms of its evolutionary stability. The evolution of predator-prey interactions: Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics