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Image Credit: University of Michigan Special Collections Library the Galileo space probe and its detachable mini-probe, visited Venus, Earth. Many people are not clear about the difference between our Solar System, our our star, the Sun, and its orbiting planets (including Earth), along with numerous moons, The Hubble Space Telescope made one of the deepest images of the. Some of the most stunning photos of the planets and moons in our solar This image of the International Space Station crossing the Sun.
The Earth is about four times wider than the Moon. The revolving Earth Step 1: Draw a picture of the Earth in the middle of the board. Explain that the Moon revolves around the Earth, and then add it to the drawing.
Now explain that both the Earth and the Moon revolve around the Sun. Draw this on the board as well. Invite three students to come to the front of the class. Explain that student 1 is the Moon, student 2 is the Earth and student 3 is the Sun. Encourage the students to enact the movement of the Moon around the Earth and the spinning of the Earth on its axis while it revolves around the Sun. Explain that the Moon, a natural satellite, revolves around the Earth, a planet, and both revolve around the Sun, a star.
Explain that they are going to make a mobile showing this. The Sun-Earth-Moon mobile Step 1: Now distribute the Sun-Earth-Moon mobile worksheet and explain the ten steps to making the Sun mobile.
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Talk through the instructions together. The wooden skewers are used for the top bar. Help the students tie the string to the wooden skewers. Using the drawing, demonstrate how to put the rest of the mobile together. Hang the mobiles in the classroom. Check that the mobiles they have made work properly.
Does the Earth revolve around the Sun and the Moon around the Earth? Year 5, Science, Earth and Space: Conclusion In this activity, students make a model of the Sun, Earth and Moon and play a matching game. They learn that the Earth revolves around the Sun and the Moon around the Earth.
As Earth turns, the Moon and stars change position in our sky. Earth's Day and Night[ edit ] Another effect of Earth's rotation is that we have a cycle of daylight and darkness approximately every 24 hours. This is called a day. As Earth rotates, the side of Earth facing the Sun experiences daylight, and the opposite side facing away from the Sun experiences darkness or night time. Since the Earth completes one rotation in about 24 hours, this is the time it takes to complete one day-night cycle.
As the Earth rotates, different places on Earth experience sunset and sunrise at a different time. As you move towards the poles, summer and winter days have different amounts of daylight hours in a day. For example, in the Northern hemisphere, we begin summer on June At this point, the Earth's North Pole is pointed directly toward the Sun.
Therefore, areas north of the equator experience longer days and shorter nights because the northern half of the Earth is pointed toward the Sun. Since the southern half of the Earth is pointed away from the Sun at that point, they have the opposite effect—longer nights and shorter days. For people in the Northern hemisphere, winter begins on December At this point, it is Earth's South Pole that is tilted toward the Sun, and so there are shorter days and longer nights for those who are north of the equator.
Earth's Seasons[ edit ] It is a common misconception that summer is warm and winter is cold because the Sun is closer to Earth in the summer and farther away from it during the winter. Remember that seasons are caused by the This results in one part of the Earth being more directly exposed to rays from the Sun than the other part. The part tilted away from the Sun experiences a cool season, while the part tilted toward the Sun experiences a warm season.
Seasons change as the Earth continues its revolution, causing the hemisphere tilted away from or towards the Sun to change accordingly. When it is winter in the Northern hemisphere, it is summer in the Southern hemisphere, and vice versa. The Earth's tilt on its axis leads to one hemisphere facing the Sun more than the other hemisphere and gives rise to seasons. Solar Eclipses[ edit ] Figure A solar eclipse occurs when the new moon passes directly between the Earth and the Sun Figure This casts a shadow on the Earth and blocks our view of the Sun.
A total solar eclipse occurs when the Moon's shadow completely blocks the Sun Figure When only a portion of the Sun is out of view, it is called a partial solar eclipse. Solar eclipses are rare events that usually only last a few minutes. That is because the Moon's shadow only covers a very small area on Earth and Earth is turning very rapidly. As the Sun is covered by the moon's shadow, it will actually get cooler outside.
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Birds may begin to sing, and stars will become visible in the sky. During a solar eclipse, the corona and solar prominences can be seen.
Photo of a total solar eclipse. During a solar eclipse, never look directly towards the sun even if the sun cannot be seen, as its harmful rays can damage your eyes badly.
Always use special glasses which filter out the harmful sun rays when seeing a solar eclipse. A Lunar Eclipse[ edit ] A lunar eclipse occurs when the full moon moves through the shadow of the Earth Figure This can only happen when the Earth is between the Moon and the Sun and all three are lined up in the same plane, called the ecliptic.
The ecliptic is the plane of Earth's orbit around the Sun. The Earth's shadow has two distinct parts: The umbra is the inner, cone shaped part of the shadow, in which all of the light has been blocked. The outer part of Earth's shadow is the penumbra where only part of the light is blocked. In the penumbra, the light is dimmed but not totally absent. A total lunar eclipse occurs when the Moon travels completely in Earth's umbra. The Earth's shadow is quite large, so a lunar eclipse lasts for hours and can be seen by anyone with a view of the Moon at the time of the eclipse.
The formation of a lunar eclipse. Partial lunar eclipses occur at least twice a year, but total lunar eclipses are less common.
The moon glows with a dull red coloring during a total lunar eclipse. The Phases of the Moon[ edit ] The Moon does not produce any light of its own—it only reflects light from the Sun. As the Moon moves around the Earth, we see different parts of the near side of the Moon illuminated by the Sun.
This causes the changes in the shape of the Moon that we notice on a regular basis, called the phases of the Moon. As the Moon revolves around Earth, the illuminated portion of the near side of the Moon will change from fully lit to completely dark and back again. A full moon is the lunar phase seen when the whole of the Moon's lit side is facing Earth.
This phase happens when Earth is between the Moon and the Sun. About one week later, the Moon enters the quarter-moon phase.
At this point, the Moon appears as a half-circle, since only half of the Moon's lit surface is visible from Earth. When the Moon moves between Earth and the Sun, the side facing Earth is completely dark. This is called the new moon phase, and we do not usually see the Moon at this point.
Sometimes you can just barely make out the outline of the new moon in the sky. This is because some sunlight reflects off the Earth and hits the moon. Before and after the quarter-moon phases are the gibbous and crescent phases.
During the gibbous moon phase, the moon is more than half lit but not full. During the crescent moon phase, the moon is less than half lit and is seen as only a sliver or crescent shape.