Chapter Eight – Relational Escalation and De-escalation | Communication – Speeches
Finally, the decision makers may choose to de- escalate for purely tactical other states within the context of the relationships that they believe were created in. Social Networking Site Behaviors Across the Relational Lifespan: Measurement and Association With Relationship Escalation and De-escalation. Show all. Social Networking Site Behaviors Across the Relational Lifespan: Measurement and Association With Relationship Escalation and De-.
And allies who feel threatened by a conflict may pressure the disputing nations to de-escalate. Fourth, outside parties can serve as intermediaries to help the adversaries reframe the conflict and discover a mutually beneficial way to de-escalate it. In most cases, the parties are more likely to accept proposals suggested by a mediator rather than by an enemy. Thus, when outside actors take an active and positive role in conflict management, they increase the likelihood that de-escalation policies will prove successful.
Fifth, regional mechanisms for dispute resolution, specialized international organizations and NGOs likewise play a role in preventing deadly conflict and fostering de-escalation.
Intermediaries sometimes work to organize dialogue groups, problem-solving workshopsor assistance programs to help develop institutions for managing conflict.
Currently, education is highly ethnocentric and influenced by propaganda and inflammatory media. However, schools, communities and the media also have the potential to promote cooperation and foster pro-social behavior.
For example, schools can design activities to increase children's ability to identify others' emotional responses and to take the perspective of another. Such empathy training fosters cooperation and mutual understanding. Education about non-violent modes of conflict resolution is also crucial.
This would include leadership seminars that focus on problems of ethnocentrism, prejudiceviolenceeconomic developmentand the proliferation of weapons. Escalation training that exposes disputants to the dangers of violence and escalation and outlines de-escalation strategies might also be helpful. The media, including radio and television, also plays an important role.
Emphasizing the voices of political demagogues in the media can inflame feelings of fear and anger and contribute to invidious distinctions between in-groups and out-groups. Such inflammatory reporting often fuels the escalation spiral and adds to the destructiveness of conflict. However, the media also has great potential to reduce tensions between countries and can be used to promote understanding between adversaries.
Both radio and television can help to clarify important issues and promote public understanding of the conflict. It can also highlight the terrible costs associated with war and violence and help people to recognize that they are on a disastrous course. In addition, mass media communication about possibilities for conflict resolution, including documentaries about successful resolution efforts, might prove highly valuable. In general, these sorts of peace media strategies can help to balance out the voices of extremists.
De-escalation Strategies Various tactics can be used to initiate the de-escalation process: Opening a new channel of communication. Public acknowledgement of some responsibility for the conflict. Recognition of the adversary's existence and legitimacy.
Cessation of violent coercion. Participation in informal discussions about solutions. In selecting a policy, an analysis of the prevailing conditions and trends relating to the struggle should be made.
No single kind of de-escalating effort will work for every conflict in every situation. Instead, a wide range of alternative policies should be reviewed to ascertain which policies are likely to attain particular goals under various circumstances.
While conflict that has reached only a low level of escalation is usually the easiest and least costly to resolve, the political will is often low. To avoid further escalation, parties should use non-provocative methods, such as protest or nonviolent resistanceas opposed to violence.
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They should keep the issues in contention narrowly focused and isolated from other issues, and limit participation. One way of doing this is to reduce or counter inflammatory rumors and establish rumor control mechanisms.
For example, in periods of rioting or other racial disturbances, the Community Relations Service, an arm of the U. Department of Justice, sometimes establishes rumor control centers to provide accurate information about what is going on. On call all of the time, they provide a phone number citizens can call to seek verification of stories they have heard. Non-proliferation strategies, arms embargoesand arms limitation agreements are all ways to block the flow of weapons into unstable areas.
In addition, intermediaries help to prevent the spread of conflict by providing peacekeeping forces, as well as provide mediation, information gathering and consultation services.
They also involve efforts aimed at improving the social, economic, and cultural way of life of the disadvantaged and marginalized members of society. This includes establishing a legitimate electoral system, educational system, and procedures for protecting fundamental human rights.
Such measures not only limit inadvertent escalation, but also aid in de-escalation. Gradual Reduction in Tension GRITa term coined by Charles Osgood, refers to those strategies whereby mutual tension and fear can be interrupted and the de-escalation process begun through conciliatory moves. One of the parties announces and initiates a series of small cooperative moves, and invites the other side to reciprocate.
These moves are continued whether or not there is immediate reciprocity. If the first initiative is ignored, on the other hand, it can be followed by a second or even a third attempt.
Knapp’s Relationship Model
These concessions should be designed to build trust and indicate a willingness to cooperate, but should not be terribly costly. These disarming moves help to break down parties' negative perceptions of each other and allow a step-by-step process of conflict de-escalation to begin. Before his trip, hostility and suspicion between Egypt and Israel was very high, and several wars had already occurred.
Sadat announced that he wanted to visit Jerusalem to increase trust and to diminish tensions between the two nations. While this conciliatory move cost him very little, it greatly improved his image and helped to reduce tensions between the two countries. It also helped pave the way for the historic Camp David Accords a year later. When they are ready, the adversaries can engage in joint, problem-solving workshops facilitated by intermediaries. Various techniques contribute to problem solving success.
First, breaking down the immediate dispute into a series of more manageable sub-disputes can help adversaries to deal with the complexity associated with interlocking issues. Parties can reach agreements about peripheral issues first before they move on more central issues. Second, the direct contact and communication involved in joint discussions allows the adversaries to explain their actions so that they do not elicit defensive reactions.
It also allows parties to further understand each other's motives and sensitivities and enables them to act in ways that will not upset each other. Interaction may also contribute to the establishment of positive personal bonds between adversaries. To strengthen cooperation and prevent violence, it is important to create conditions under which many different identity groups can coexist and work together. For example, parties can develop groups, networks or organizations including persons from opposing sides.
This allows them to get to know each other and engage in dialogue. This involves the development of an objective that is common to both parties and requires their joint effort and cooperation. While contact that occurs under unfavorable conditions of suspicion and unequal power can stir up tensions and reinforce stereotypesfriendly contact in the context of equal status and cooperation can improve attitudes. As they work together, they are likely to focus on commonalities rather than differences and develop positive attitudes towards each other.
Educational, cultural and scientific exchanges, for example, can expand favorable contact between people of different groups and nations and promote mutual respect. Building such bridges helps to reduce conflict intensity. The Importance of Timing "Efforts at de-escalation are almost certain to be unrewarding or at least much more difficult if the situation is not propitious for their effects. William Zartman, in "Power Strategies in De-escalation," p.
William Zartman coined the term " ripeness ," to indicate when a conflict was ready for de-escalation and resolution. Parties may try to de-escalate when the time is wrong or fail to try when the time is right. If de-escalation is attempted at the wrong time, it is likely to fail. Once made and rejected, a de-escalation proposal might become tainted. While it may have succeeded, had it been implemented at a more suitable time, it becomes less credible once rejected.
In addition, failed attempts to de-escalate conflict may contribute to parties' view of the conflict as intractable. In addition, parties may fail to initiate de-escalation policies when the time is ripe. A chance to reach a beneficial outcome has been lost, and it is possible that conditions may not be right for that settlement again. This allows the conflict to persist and possibly escalate.
Hostilities may become institutionalized, making de-escalation more difficult in the future. Finally, parties can initiate de-escalation when the time is right, and yet still fail to achieve the full range of desired results.
That has many reasons, which can be summarized by saying that intractable conflicts are entrenched, complex, and somewhat unpredictable. What will work to de-escalate one may not work for another. Yet disputants themselves as well as the parties must be willing to risk de-escalation at some point, or else the conflict, with all its destructive results, will go on indefinitely.
Syracuse University Press, From Escalation to Resolution. Rowman and Littlefield, Pruitt and Jeffrey Z. Escalation, Stalemate, and Settlement, 1st edition. Random House, Louis Kriesberg and S. Escalation,  Pruitt and Rubin, op. Syracuse University Press,3. Book Summary available at: Bonding — In this stage, a person will announce to the world about their relationship.
They make their relationship recognized and will honor their commitment legally. The relationship is indefinite and only to be broken through a formal notice, agreements or death etc. Example 1 — The boy proposes and the girl agrees to marry him. Example 2 — The bonding stage of business relationships comprises of partnerships and durable relationships which can lower business expenses and can result in more profit.
Like coming together, there are five stages in coming apart. Differentiating — When people progress in a relationship they sometimes due to other external pressures will start thinking individually rather than with the partner. They may start developing hobbies or other endeavors. The relationship will start to fade and the everlasting bond will be broken. The feeling of dislike is often expressed by the partners on their commitment.
Example 1 — The boy comes up with idea of quitting the job and to do something he wanted. The girl rejects the idea with some reasoning. So a pressure is created inside the relationship.
Example 2 — In business, meetings are crucial to know the partners stands and other opinions. Due to work pressure, dealers and other costumers, the meetings are reduced.
They start to think more as individuals than as partners. Circumscribing — After differentiating partners will limit their conversations and will set up boundaries in their communication.
Often people will never communicate the topic fearing an argument. They will have their own personal space and activities. The boy does the same. Example 2 — In business, the issues regarding the quality might arise due to the communication gap and the conflicts can lead to alternative contract units. Stagnation — The relationship will decline even more if it reaches the stagnation stage.
The communication will be more limited. Mostly the relationships in this stage will not continue or improve. Example 1 — As the girl found that there is not much to talk about in general and will remain silent even though they live in the same house. So there is a serious communication gap between the girl and the boy.
Example 2 — In business relationships, there will be a communication gap when one party or both the partners feel neglected or when they felt insignificant. Avoidance — At this stage, the partners intentionally avoid any contacts and they will be physically detached. They restrict themselves from any forms of communication to avoid a conversation or an argument. Example 1 — One day the boy packs his bags and walks out of the house.
By the time the girl would have completely avoided the boy and will not attempt to stop him.