Noack G. Berechnung hydrodynamisch geschmierter Gleitlager dargestellt [ 19] VDI Richtlinie ; Düsseldorf –  Lang O R, Steinhilper W. Gleitlager. VDI-Z. () 14, p. Lang, O.R.: Moderne Berechnungsverfahren bei der Auslegung von Dieselmotoren. 69 Lang, O.R.; Steinhilper, W.: Gleitlager. O.R. Lang and W. Steinhilper. Gleitlager. Springer, A. Boyaci, H. Hetzler, W . Seemann, C. Proppe, and J. Wauer. Analytical bifurcation analysis of a rotor.
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The failure of a bearing in a ship motor may represent a threat to the machine, ship and environment, as well as to human lives. Shaft Rotational Speed, Loading Force: The progress of the bearing damage can be clearly observed. The characteristic curve falls to a minimum value and then increases. Further analysis is required to fully explain the extent to which each of the measured variables influence the acoustic signal. These studies demonstrated that acoustic emission analysis is an appropriate measurement procedure to detect incipient failures at sliding bearings through the correlation between the emitted acoustic signal and the energy dissipated in the sliding metallic contacts.
This causes a saturation of many machine components, for example, sliding bearings. At the beginning of the measurements, the same frequency pattern is consistent with those seen in Figure 4. The test bench consists of a steel shaft supported by two bearings.
In Figure 6, the value of this integral is given next to the progress courses of load, torque and bearing back temperature.
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All of the variables – shell material, speed, temperature and lubricant viscosity – are of interest. Stribeck Curve The region up to the minimum of the Stribeck-curve is determined through boundary and mixed lubrication.
For continuous surveillance systems, significant storage and processing capacity is required to manage the relatively large amounts of data and processing algorithms. Acoustic emission analysis also has an extra advantage with the AE-sensor. Metall 31Nr. Friction and wear increase quickly, leading finally to a failure of the bearing. Further investigations presented similar results although bearing shells with different diameters and materials were used.
Time Variation of the Frequency Spectra. This response is characteristic to all the tests conducted and was observed in the generation of bearing damage. In the audible sound range, environmental interferences are so large that the measuring signal is no longer useful. Result of Static Applied Load Test on Half-shell Glyco 40 Bearing In Figure 6, the value of this integral is given next to the progress courses of load, torque and bearing back temperature.
The success of a continuous surveillance system will depend on its configuration relative to the specific mechanical interactions. Frequency Gleitager of Undamaged Bearings Figure 4 shows the frequency spectrum for an undamaged surface under hydrodynamic condition gleitlwger slight load is shown against the frequency spectrum for a failed bearing. Damage can be recognized independently of contact geometry, sliding speed, shell-material, rear shell temperature, and lubricant temperature with a significant increase of the amplitude in the frequency range around kHz.
Starting at the 16th test series, the amplitude in the range between 80 to kHz is clearly pronounced, showing the beginning of metallic contact between shaft and shell, and eventually leading to a bearing failure. These results support an argument for the use of AE analysis to be used as a condition stinhilper method for sliding bearings based on the correlation between the friction condition and the measuring average noise level.
By calculating the impulse density, conclusions on the existence of damages in bearings can be determined. In the case of the impulse density measurement only the frequency is used, and in the case of the effective value measurement only the amplitude is used. This procedure clarifies that with the AE signal a bearing failure can be recognized seconds before it occurs.
The test bearing is located between both supporting bearings, which can be loaded using a hydraulic cylinder with a static loading force of up to 60 kN 13, pounds Figure 3.
Therefore, it must be measured in an ultrasonic range, at approximately kHz, where normal operating vibrations of machines and engineering equipment have no influence. This course corresponds with the progress of the Stribeck-curve which describes the correlation between sliding speed and friction coefficient in sliding contacts Figure 2.
In this region, the two machine surfaces are separated by a lubricant film. Numerous failure symptoms can be identified at an increased noise level or at a typical frequency range.
A detailed examination of the variables, which are normally involved in the friction process, determined that physical and mechanical parameters of the friction surface, where steel surfaces were involved, did not generate appreciably differing results.
The loading force was increased to the point where asperity contacts began to occur.
Munsterman, About the Author M. The region up to the minimum of the Stribeck-curve is determined through boundary and mixed lubrication.
Speed of the shaft can vary between and 3, rpm.
The initial bearing damage can be recognized where the loading force at the bearing was gradually increased up to 4. Sliding Bearing Test Bench. Steinihlper Variation of the Frequency Spectra In Figure 5, the variation in time of every frequency spectral analysis is properly arranged. Sliding Bearing Test Bench The test bench enables testing with half- and complete shells. The Best Gets Better: Steinhil;er Services and Products.
The AE-sensor was mounted on the outside of the housing Figure 3. Sliding Bearing Test Methods and Apparatus The test bench consists of a steel shaft supported by two bearings. In experiments carried out with axial and radial bearings, a density of impulses was determined in order to evaluate the acoustic signal at high frequencies. In this instance, a bearing failure could be induced by applying slight loading forces. Create your own user feedback survey.
The transferability of these results to nonstationary loaded bearings, for example in combustion engines, remains uncertain and its investigation could become the main purpose for further works. The possibility of preheating the lubricant facilitated a further reduction of the loading capacity of the bearing due to the viscosity decreasing as temperature rises.
The noise emerging from metallic contacts between sliding surfaces is measured with emission acoustic sensors and further evaluated by spectral analysis.