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Firms with missing values for financial or market data for all eight years were excluded from the sample. The resulting sample includes companies and 1 firm-year observations for the period In order to analyze the dependence of the capital structure on the size of the company, the sample was divided into three groups of CEE companies depending on the size of annual market capitalization in Publicly traded companies are typically grouped into market cap categories: Table 3 presents descriptive statistics for firm-level variables used in the analysis for the sample period for each size group.
It can be seen that smaller companies have the biggest mean value of 1. Leverage ratio of 1. Regression analysis To gain further insights table 5 summarizes the results of regression analysis for CEE companies. In order to investigate the impact of the size of the company on capital efficiency four separate regressions were analyzed, one for each performance measure, ROE, ROA, ROCE, CFROI that were taken as a dependent variables and market capitalization as an independent variable.
According to Durbin-Watson statistic, there is no serial correlation in residuals. Comparing the reported R Squares of the regression models, it can be seen that for CEE companies market capitalization does not provide information in explaining capital efficiency. Conclusion The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of company size on capital efficiency of companies located in Central and Eastern Europe. The research covered the data of companies of different sizes for the period The study also sought to investigate the capital structure of CEE companies in relation to their size measured as an annual market capitalization.
This supports hypothesis 1 of the present study. The mean value for leverage ratio for large-sized CEE companies is 0. Correlation analysis revealed the presence of weak positive relationship between ROA and ROCE and company size measures as annual market capitalization, having coefficients 0. Regression results suggest that for companies located in Central and Eastern Europe firm size does not provide information in explaining capital efficiency. Thus, there is 10 3 International Conference for Accounting Researchers and Educators rd not possible to say that large companies dispose their capital more efficiently than small ones and hypothesis 2 can be rejected.
Limitations and Scope of Future Research One of the limitations of the present study is that does not consider control variables like age of firm, growth of firm, leverage, industry type that may represent influential factors impacting the capital efficiency. The sample is not differentiated by different sectors of economy.
In future studies the effects of firm size on capital efficiency may be analyzed by differentiating by sector. Another limitation is related to a relatively small number of large cap companies included into the sample so that there might be some inconsistencies when trying to generalize the results for large cap companies to a wider sample.
This study focuses only on company size factor affecting the capital efficiency, meanwhile there is a number of other factors affecting the capital efficiency so the inclusion of other important variables in future research may be relevant.
Finally, this research uses only quantitative methods of identification of impact of firm size on capital efficiency. Including additional qualitative research would provide more comprehensive insight into the nature of relationship between company size and capital efficiency. Journal of Economics and Finance, 29, Amato, L. The effects of firm size on profit rates in the financial services. Does size really matter?
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Financial Analysts Journal, 53 5 Return on equity and company characteristics: Retrieved online from https: Determinants of Financial Performance: Measuring firm size in empirical corporate finance. The Profitability of European Banks: The Manchester School, 72, Determinants of Profitability in European manufacturing and service: Applied Financial Economics, 15, Market Share and Profitability: Is Bigger Really Better?
Business Economics, 19, Firm size and profitability: A study of listed manufacturing firms in Sri Lanka. International Journal of Business and Management, 9 4 Role of corporate governance in firm performance: A comparative study between chemical and pharmaceutical sector in Pakistan.Warbird Air-Show of the Legendary Fighters
International Research Journal of Finance and Economics, 50, Does Size Matter in Firm Performance? Evidence from US Public Firms.
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Influence of firm size on its business success. Croatian Operational Research Review, 3 1 Determinants of corporate social responsibility disclosure ratings by Spanish listed firms. Journal of Business Ethics, 88 2 Growth and profitability in Portuguese companies: Economic Interferences, 9, Market Share Is Not Destiny. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 5, The Variability of Profitability with Size of Firm. Journal of American Statistical Association, 59, — Institutional Environments and Resource Dependence: Administrative Science Quarterly, 30 1 Determinants of corporate financial performance.
Retrieved online from www. Firm Size on Profitability: Global Journal of Management and Business Research, 10 296— Small firms in economic theory. Cambridge Journal of Economics, Vol. In particular, this study examines; i what entrepreneurial characteristics support the implementation of TQM best practices and ii how entrepreneurs implement TQM best practices. Training, inculcating a quality culture, trust culture coupled with Toyota Production Quality Management System resulting a unique Lanka Harness System, adopting lean manufacturing techniques developed by Japanese quality systems were recognized as how entrepreneurs implement TQM best practices.
Therefore, this study contributes to expand the organization adheres to strict quality standards where the defect tolerance rate is one part per million 1 ppm outputs. The case organization has no competitors thus making it a unique organization that has achieved the highest quality standards.
The boundaries of knowledge pertaining to entrepreneurial 15 3 International Conference for Accounting Researchers and Educators rd orientation and TQM especially in the Sri Lankan context. The study concludes with a discussion of the insights generated by the findings linking with theoretical knowledge and directions for future research. The development of a country and its economy rely on the success of organizations and industries that create employment, utilize resources, introduce new technology and brings foreign income etc.
As highlighted, there are several studies to examine entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial orientation of a firm and its role on innovation and performance implications.
However, the literature is silent on the implications of TQM best practices, entrepreneurial orientation of an organization. Research Questions and Objectives of the Study Development of novel business approaches such as outsourcing labour and globalization has caused intense competition among companies. Customers have more choices and customer demands are ever increasing.
Therefore, business organizations need to be efficient and effective with their organizational management in order to utilize resources in a manner which benefits the organization. This notion is especially applicable to entrepreneurs who start business organizations with the intention of growth, sustainability, improved performance, survival and 16 3 International Conference for Accounting Researchers and Educators rd success in the long term.
Therefore, adopting TQM best practices is imperative for an organization and can be stated as a function of entrepreneurship itself Zairi, Following a qualitative research approach, this study conducts a case study at an automobile sensor manufacturing organization, Lanka Harness Limited, in Sri Lanka.
Lanka Harness manufactures impact sensor switches for seat belts and air bags for world-renowned automobile brands. The company adheres to strict quality standards where the defect tolerance rate is one part per million 1 ppm outputs. This study aims to examine the proposed research questions by referring to Lanka Harness Limited in order to identify the characteristics, behavior, aspirations, features and the specialties which enabled the company to succeed through TQM best practices in the Sri Lankan context.
Accordingly, the objective of this study is to examine i what entrepreneurial characteristics support the implementation of TQM best practices ii how entrepreneurs implement TQM best practice. In doing so, this study attempts to expand the boundaries of the knowledge pertaining to TQM and Entrepreneurial Orientation. In an event of an impact, the sensor detects the impact as the seatbelt is jolted due to the sensor switch triggering a switch to complete 17 3 International Conference for Accounting Researchers and Educators rd a circuit.
This triggers an electronic signal which automatically activate opening of airbags thus saving lives.
The airbag sensor market and growth is directly proportional to the conditions of the world automobile manufacturing market. Airbags are mainly manufactured for the light passenger vehicle market especially Cars and Vans for passenger safety.
Global air growth slows markedly in March; end of restock cycle to blame
Warranty contract for the sensors are for the lifetime of the vehicle which is around 5 years. About 90 Million Light Vehicles were manufactured in the year The passive safety market or seatbelts and airbags market is expected to grow as a results of government regulations and increasing customer demands on the safety of passenger vehicles.
Research Design There are several philosophical paradigms that explain the basis of scientific research. Research 18 3 International Conference for Accounting Researchers and Educators rd questions were derived from perusing academic literature and discussions with the academic supervisor. On research philosophies, Creswell suggests four different types of worldviews: The traditional and quantitative assumption of research is represented by post positivist worldview Creswell, Constructivism is frequently combined with interpretivism and is usually known as qualitative research Creswell, This approach was used interested in insight, discovery, and interpretation rather than hypothesis testing.
Qualitative studies are used to investigate how and what type of research questions Creswell, The case organization is a unique organization achieving the highest quality possible Zero Defects — 1 PPM. Therefore, a qualitative case study method was used to address the research questions.
Further, the case study does not need to be applied to an entire organization but it can focus on a particular issue or a unit for analysis and exploration Anderson et al. The subject organization has no competitors in Sri Lanka and is thus very unique. The case study method was employed as a result. Case studies enable generalizations as that result of findings using multiple cases can lead to some form of replication Noor, In this case, the researcher also did not have any personal contacts with the case organisation.
Data Collection The study collected data using semi-structured interview, observations, and documentary evidence. Using the said instruments, the intention was to triangulate data in supporting the research objectives and explain the case mentioned. The first stage of the research was doing an extensive literature on the subjects of EO and TQM studied. This was done by computer and manual methods.
In addition, several discussions with the academic supervisor were also conducted to extract valuable information in order to construct a framework for this research. The study is mainly based on semi-structured interviews conducted with Mr. Rohan Pallewatta the founder of Lanka Harness Co. Ten selected employees were interviewed for accuracy, reliability and repeatability of the case study.
The most suitable method of the interview was a semi structured interview. Purposive sampling by selecting ten employees by the management of the case organization was used in this research as the sampling strategy. Data Analysis The researcher interviewed the 10 employees until the data saturation level was reached. The employees were reiterating aspects Mr.
Pallewatte answered and also the answers were repeated by several employees. At this level, the researcher felt that no significant new data or insights would be revealed and that at that point the data saturation has reached.
Subject to data saturation, these 10 interviews provide sufficient information to interpret and address the research questions examined in this study. In addition to interviews, a half day visit to the assembly area was undertaken at the said organization on the same day.
This was an inductive study and a process to discover trends and themes used to systematically compare the findings and interpretations of text assigned to a particular category emerged in the analysis. The below detailed description is of the findings categorized in to key themes accordingly.
In order to analyze data, an open coding system was utilized. Discussion and Recommendations In particular, this study is a response to the emerging need for qualitative research in entrepreneurship that allows for an in-depth study of a given phenomenon especially in the context of Sri Lanka.
Little empirical analysis has been done in the subject area and thus lacks methodological frameworks and theory development in terms of entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial orientation and corporate entrepreneurship and the characteristics that enables total quality implementation in an organization. Therefore, the study examines i how entrepreneurs implement TQM best practices, and ii what entrepreneurial characteristics support the implementation of TQM best practices.
In doing so, this inductive exploratory study expands the boundaries of the knowledge pertaining to the implications of TQM and EO. According to Lumpkin and Dess the distinction between entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial orientation is that entrepreneurial orientation is how organizations as a whole undertake projects, whereas entrepreneurship refers to the process that creates wealth through individuals and teams by fetching together the unique resources to exploit a market opportunity by creating a product or a service thus making a profit.
The results depict thus Pallewatte is an entrepreneur and Lanka Harness is an entrepreneurially oriented organization. These qualities are discussed herein 21 3 International Conference for Accounting Researchers and Educators rd in the subsequent subchapters along with the TQM aspect in the research objectives. The findings reveal that the business model of Lanka Harness Co. This benefits both organizations as foreign investment and revenue is brought to Sri Lanka creating employment and lowering costs for the mother company.
As per the observation by visiting the factory, the necessary parts are shipped to Lanka Harness by the mother company of Japan and other licensed suppliers overseas and the assembly line workers assemble the circuit by soldering and the sensor cable of the airbag sensor.
Conclusion In conclusion, this study examined a unique case organization in order to investigate what entrepreneurial characteristics support the implementation of Total Quality Management TQM best practices and how entrepreneurs implement TQM best practices.
As observed in Lanka Harness Co. It is based on continuous improvement of the process and mutual respect of each other. The ultimate goal of TQM is satisfaction of both external customers and internal employees of the organization.
TQM philosophy is applicable to any organization and can be adopted by governments and non-governmental organizations alike. Accordingly, successful adoption of TQM best practices is somewhat 22 3 International Conference for Accounting Researchers and Educators rd complicated and is difficult to achieve without carefully managing the human resources of the organization.
Also, change management is imperative when adopting TQM practices initially as by human nature, humans are somewhat resistant to change initially. The importance of training, continuous improvement come to light with this notion. With proper training, employees can be TQM inculcated. Modern companies like Lanka Harness has invested on human resources and has gained the advantages from adopting TQM as analyzed in this study.
A strict authoritarian dictatorship type leadership style will not be practical when dealing with employees at a business organization as observed at Lanka Harness Co. Pallewatte mentioned during a follow up interview that tacit knowledge of employees and unique skills is something that cannot be imitated and then replicated by the competitors. With good communication and work ethic and team spirit, employees of Lanka Harness have truly harnessed the synergy or collective energy that has led to the meteoric rise of this unique organization and it is the key to improved performance.
Also, it has to be noted that every organization has a unique culture of its own and likewise, Lanka Harness also has its own collection of norms TQMvalues Respectbeliefs Continuous Improvement and expectations Trust held by the members of the organization.
It depends upon management policies and employee actions. If one is to implement TQM, this organizational culture change has to be managed carefully. Therefore, it is somewhat of a dynamic and a difficult yet a delicate process. TQM has benefited the case organization as it eliminated errors, reduced waste thus improving company performance while achieving sustainability and customer satisfaction covering all TQM aspects.
Training, inculcating a quality culture, trust culture and unique Lanka Harness System, Japanese quality systems were recognized as how entrepreneurs implement TQM best practices.
In doing so, this study attempted to expand the boundaries of knowledge pertaining to entrepreneurial orientation and TQM especially within the Sri Lankan context. Qualitative Health Research, 15 5 Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. Emerging issues in corporate entrepreneurship.
Journal of Management, 29 3 The Case of TQM. European Research Studies, 12 3 Quality management for organizational excellence. This was five percentage points lower than the year-over-year results in February, and the slowest growth rate in 22 months, IATA said.
Freight capacity year over year gained 4. Though capacity in March grew at a slower pace than in the prior month, it still represented the first time in 20 months that capacity exceeded demand, IATA said.
One of the hallmarks of the current expansion cycle is that airlines have been able to keep control of their capacity in spite of significant demand growth. IATA has forecast that freight demand would slow once the current restocking cycle runs its course. Over the past months, businesses rapidly increased their inventories to meet unusually strong end demand. The speed of airfreight is crucial in accommodating sharp spikes in goods demand.
IATA also reported a slowing in global trade activity, whose strength in recent months had pundits talking about a synchronized worldwide economic recovery. However, de Juniac warned that the threat of protectionism, higher oil prices, and patchy economic growth could alter that forecast.
Growth in the Asia-Pacific region, the largest in terms of global freight share, barely budged in March, up 0. Europe, the second-biggest market, grew by 1 percent. North American demand rose 3.