Society, Culture and Arts - Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade
Cultural Differences Between Australia and Japan before the law and outlawed discrimination based on "political, economic or social relations" or "race, creed. , Cultural Agreement between the Government of Japan and the Government of Australia. , Basic Treaty of Friendship and. Page 8, World Heritage: Hidden Christian Sites of the Nagasaki Region Page 6 , Australia-Japan Relations Essay Contest - call for entries. A word from.
In addition, over sister schools exist between Australia and Japan. In fact, Australia is the most popular destination for Japanese school study tours and sister school exchanges.
For example, band members from Ichijo High School in Nara City, visited their sister city, Canberrain to perform for locals. Currently Japanese is still the most widely studied foreign language in Australian schools and universities, with aroundstudents studying across primary to tertiary levels. These figures place Australia fourth in the world in terms of the number of Japanese language learners.
Education and research links Japan is a global leader in education, research, science and innovation, and analysis shows that researchers in both Australia and Japan benefit in quality and impact when they work together. Australia and Japan already enjoy a wide range of links at the school, university, science agency and company levels.
Read more about the Japan-Australia education and research relationship please visit http: In December the Australian Embassy in Tokyo held a successful symposium and roundtable on internationalisation in higher education. Read more about strategies to increase university partnerships please visit Australia's international education site.
Australia–Japan relations - Wikipedia
Australia-Japan Foundation The Australia-Japan Foundation AJF was established by the Australian Government in to expand and develop contact and exchange between the peoples of Australia and Japan and to help project positive images of Australia and Japan in each other's country. Since its creation, the Foundation has worked to promote the people-to-people links across a diverse range of sectors.
The current objectives of the Foundation are to: Australia supports Tohoku region Since the devastation caused by the Great East Earthquake and Tsunami, Australia has shown tremendous support to the Tohoku region.
Then-Australian Prime Minister, Julia Gillard, was the first foreign leader to visit the region and Australia provided much support through food aid packages, donations and relief teams on the ground when it was needed most. Australia and Japan have forged even stronger, more resilient friendships through ongoing projects including one that provides Japanese students from Minami Sanriku a chance to broaden their perspectives and develop meaningful connections with Australia through a homestay and study program.
You can read about the students motivations for visiting Australia in their essays here. Australia has also provided support through projects such as a mobile library and a playground for children from Iitate who were forced to relocate after the disaster through the Australia-Japan Foundation. Read more about the Reconstruction Initiative. Those who controlled the land in turn used it to gain maximum yields, which tended to be rice over livestock. Animal protein therefore came from fishing.
Almost three-quarters of the land cannot support agriculture in any form. Housing The prevalence of tsunami and earthquakes influenced Japanese building design. Because solid brick constructions were difficult to build and dangerous when the earth was shaking, Japanese designed houses out of wood, paper, bamboo and mud. These moved with the ground during earthquakes and if they did fall down, they could be rebuilt quickly.
The downside was that they were very cold in winter and were a fire hazard. Today, small Japanese houses still use the flexible building materials. Larger houses that use concrete are built to be able to move with earthquakes. Australian housing has generally followed European approaches thus is yet to show significant adaption to the landscape.
Australia and Japan cultural differences
Specifically, houses are rarely designed with bushfires in mind or the extreme heat of summer. Japanese houses are more sturdy than in the past, but paper walls are still popular. Love hotels Love hotels are a very prominent feature of the Japanese urban environment. They are hotels that exist for the sole purpose of having sex. To ensure discretion, payment may be made to hands that appear from behind curtains or via an electronic display with buttons.
Foreigners typically interpret the existence of love hotels as evidence of a decadent side to Japanese culture. In their eyes, the existence of a hotel that exists solely for sex must mean that Japanese are prone to cheating. Such an interpretation tends to reflect the motivations for hotel sex in foreign countries.
The real explanation is far more conservative.Japan to Australia 🗾 What Shocked Me When I Came Home 🗻
Basically, traditionally married Japanese often live with parents in houses with walls made of paper. It is therefore difficult to have sex in ways that don't draw the attention of parents or children. The love hotel provides the solution for couples that want to do more than hold hands but don't want share their intimacy with others.
In Australia, there are no love hotels because there is less of a culture of married couples living with parents or children living at home until they are married. Furthermore, houses usually have thick walls where couples can gain some privacy. It is acceptable for drunk men to urinate on the street but less so for sombre men. Women are expected to use a toilet. Honesty is a highly prized trait and lost wallets and purses are often returned with money still enclosed.
In the restaurant or izakaya drinking establishment with cheap eatsetiquette is reasonably relaxed aside from refraining from actions that have death associations. One taboo is sticking chop sticks up right in rice, as this is how rice may be presented to deceased ancestors in the obon festival. Another taboo is passing food using chop sticks.
While it maybe a flirtatious act in many Asian countries, in Japan it has associations with passing the bones of cremated loved ones. Tipping is not required in Japanese restaurants and may even be considered to be rude. Other customs, such as the manner of holding chopsticks and methods of serving, relate to eating in refined ways. Expensive sushi is eaten with the hands. When entering the home, shoes are removed and exchanged for a pair of slippers.
It is rare to be invited into the home so it is considered polite to bring a small inexpensive gift. In business, bowing is sign of respect and the lower the bow the more the respect given. Business cards are usually exchanged and respect is typically demonstrated by accepting the card with two hands, studying it, looking impressed and then putting it away. On Australian streets, sometimes drunk men are seen urinating but it is considered very poor etiquette and may attract police attention.
An obvious swallowing of mucus would be viewed as disgusting as would spitting mucus on the pavement. Honestly is a prized trait but it is unlikely a lost wallet or purse would be returned with money still enclosed.
In a restaurant, etiquette varies according to the nature of the restaurant but generally it is taboo to use hands on anything except chips and bread.
Australians do more entertaining in their homes than Japanese, which is turn reflected with Australians spending more money on entertaining areas and renovations. When being invited to a dinner party or barbeque, it is generally polite to make a contribution of alcohol such as wine or beer.
Renting In Japan, renters pay key money when they move into a house or apartment. This is a sum of money that is given to the landlord and which the landlord keeps. It covers the cost of new mats and any other repairs once the tenant moves out.
When moving into a neighbourhood, it is polite to give a gift to the neighbours.
In Australia, renters pay a bond. This is a sum of money that they get back if they have not damaged the property. There is no need to give a gift to the neighbours. The different renting systems can perhaps be attributed to the desire of Japanese for new tatami mats whenever they move into a new place versus an Australian comfort with second hand things.
Shame culture versus guilt culture American anthropologist Ruth Benedict classified Japan as a "shame" culture and cultures with a Christian base as "guilt" cultures. She basically meant that shame is ruled by external moral standards while guilt is ruled by internal moral standards.
Benedict used the cultural framework to explain the behaviour of Japanese soldiers, who often considered a sense of honour to be more important than their own lives.
Some Japanese have used the shame-versus-guilt definitions to explain why Australians are more opinionated or honest about their beliefs than they are. For example, if a Japanese person was given food he or she didn't like, he or she may politely say it is tasty. The intention is to keep harmony in the communities. Aside from the different religions that underpin the value systems of the Australia and Japan, there are numerous influences that may make the Japanese less likely to express their opinion and more likely to be shy.
Firstly, the Japanese language is hierarchical. As a result of using it, individual Japanese become relatively more conscious of their inferior social status as they are growing up sorrounded by people superior in status because they are older.
Because they are more aware of their inferior social status, the Japanese may be less likely to express their opinion for the same reason an Australian might not express their opinion around their boss.
Specifically, individuals usually only express an opinion when they don't feel they are inferior in status. Unlike the Japanese, because Australians use a language that does not accord status, they feel more egalitarian as they are growing up. As a result, they have more confidence in their opinions because they feel more equal with those around them. A second reason for the reluctance of Japanese to express their opinion is that Japan lacks the social diversity of Australia.
Therefore, the Japanese are less likely to feel that being different is acceptable. Thirdly, democracies place symbolic power in the common person. Furthermore, they diversify the population by encouraging debate. In this way, democratic government can counter hierarchical social structures as well as the oppressive nature of monocultures. Because Japan has only had democratic governance since World War 2, it hasn't had the same amount of time to diversify its national myths like Australia.
Perhaps the recent influence of democracy could be seen in the behaviour of Masanori Murakawa, a former wrestler turned politician.
On his first day of work inMasanori arrived wearing a mask in addition to his suit. In response to criticism, he said, "I have absolutely no intention of taking it off, no matter how much opposition there is," Masanori Murakawa Bleach - The plot of Japanese anime Bleach shows a useful play on the guilt versus shame ideology.
Byakuya, the captain of the greatest noble house, always obeys rules; including the rule that his sister must be executed. He fights Ichigo, an Australian like character with blonde hair, who doesn't care about rules but cares for his friends; including Byakuya's sister. Egalitarianism Most Australians like the idea of a labourer being able to have a beer with the Queen and seeing her as different but his equal.
We have people who relate to people. No body is superior. No body is inferior. The people who I went to school with collect the garbage around here. But if they want to come in and have a drink, that's fine with me. Australians may refer to some foreigners as "mate" instead of using more respectful titles such as your honour, sir, madam, mrs, mr, ms, lord, and your highness.
For example, when cricketer Dennis Lillee greeted Queen Elizabeth, he used the words: Unlike Australia, Japan is a hierarchical society. A different language is used for addressing people of different status. When addressing people of higher status, Japanese use a more formal language that includes different words and honorifics.
The hierarchical nature of Japanese can cause some confusion when dealing with Australians. For example, in a Japanese prefecture sponsored a weekend seminar to discuss problems that Japanese people might experience in Australia. One speaker, Hiro Mukai, stated: They speak the same way with everyone. This has led to a psychological condition known as Hikkomori Syndrome, which involves a young person withdrawing from society. Unusually, a kid will go to his room and stay there for years. His parents will leave food at the door.
The parents are confused about what to do so they just ignore it. Due to the cultural mentality, gambling and pornography thrives in Japan even though both are illegal. According to the Japanese, someone is only gambling if money is won.
If a prize is won instead, it is not gambling. To exploit the loophole, pachinko parlours like poker machine palaces give gamblers the chance to win prizes. These can be then be sold for money at a shop located next to the pachinko parlour. Even though it is obviously in violation of the spirit of the rule, the Japanese look the other way. Pornography is treated in the same manner. A loop hole states if the penis and vagina is pixelated, the material is not porn. Exploiting the loophole, pornographers depict extreme hard core sex acts yet can still sell it legally as long as the vagina and penis are pixelated.
Australians are usually quick to denounce anyone exploiting loopholes or problems in societies. Dealing with pornography is perhaps an exception. Technically, pornography is illegal in every Australian state. Even so, the porn industry thrives due to a mail-order business operating out of the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory. When Australians visit Japan, the cultural difference can cause problems.
The Australians are in the habit of looking for problems in Japanese society so that they can be exposed to a wider audience. For example, Ryann Connel, the ex-chief editor of the English website of The Mainichi Daily News, busied himself with writing columns about a Japanese restaurant where patrons allegedly have sex with animals before eating them and Japanese men who cheat on their wives. For a while, Japanese politeness held sway and they simply ignored the Australian.
Eventually, the Japanese just returned fire. A blogging campaign commenced with comments such as: The newspaper issued a word apology, reprimanded several staff and put Connell on three months' disciplinary leave.
Relaxation and socialising To relax, Japanese often sit in hot springs or hot baths that are seen to have medicinal benefits. To socialise, karaoke boxes are popular. Groups of friends rent out a room with a karaoke machine and take it in turns singing.
Instead of pubs, Japanese have izakaya, where alcohol is cheap and is consumed along with small meals. The beach is to Australia what the hot spring is to Japan. Karaoke is popular in Australia but it tends to be in pubs in front of strangers instead of private boxes with friends. In Australia, karaoke is popular in bars in front of strangers. In Japan, it is in private boxes. Whaling Most Japanese don't eat whales and have no desire to eat whales.
They do; however, reserve the right to eat whales. They consider criticism of whaling as a form of racism that is akin to an Indian telling an Australian not to eat beef. According to Buddhist ideology, there is no difference between a fish and a marine mammal and Australians have no moral right to say there is. In any case, the Japanese have noted that they are being targeted in a way that other whaling nations, such as Norway and Iceland, are not.
This selective targeting of Japan is seen as a sign of Australian racism. In addition, because Australia has actively tried to stop the Japanese taking whales from Japanese waters, the Japanese consider Australia's anti-whaling stance to be interference in its territorial integrity Like Japan, Australia has a long history of whaling. InSydney Cove was the centre for the profitable whale and seal trade around the southern coasts. Numerous other coastal whaling stations were established around Australia in the late s to s.
The whaling stations were the economic heart of communities, they brought in a cosmopolitan mix of people from around the world, and they inspired paintings, scrimshaws, and novels. The whale's role as an object to be consumed continued untilwhen commercial whaling ended with closure of Australia's last whaling station, the Cheynes Beach Whaling Company, in Western Australia.
InAustralia adopted an anti-whaling policy. Today, whales are still part of Australian culture; however, the role they play reflects a degree of cultural evolution. Instead of been harvested, they are watched. Tour groups take people to watch the whales as they migrate up the Australian coast. As well as contributing to the economy, whales also contribute to community spirit. As they swim up the Australian coast, people will flock to watch them, photograph them, paint pictures of them and give them names.
Occasionally, a whale will swim into Sydney Harbour, and for days Australians will gather on the harbour foreshores to watch the whale play. The community spirit is covered in local newspapers, and on the TV news.
In order to protect the whales that migrate up the Australian coastline, in the Australian Whale Sanctuary was created in Australia's Antarctic Territory. Should those whales be killed, then part of Australia's culture dies with it.