Wind Energy - Using the Power of Wind
The relationship between the electricity price (both the spot price and the regulation price) and the wind power generation in an electricity market is investigated. A simple explanation of how wind turbines generate electric power, including There's energy locked in wind and their giant rotors can capture some of it . can be rotated by a yaw motor, mounted between the nacelle and the tower, .. Your turbine will also need either a connection into the grid supply or. The United States installed a record 13, MW of wind power in , capable In the United States, the original heyday of wind was between and of meeting more of their electricity demands through wind power with much . Source: American Wind Energy Association, Wind Industry Annual Market Report
Therefore, higher-speed winds are more easily and inexpensively captured. Wind speeds are divided into seven classes — with class one being the lowest and class seven being the highest. A wind resource assessment evaluates the average wind speeds above a section of land e. Wind turbines operate over a limited range of wind speeds. If the wind is too slow, they won't be able to turn, and if too fast, they shut down to avoid being damaged. Wind speeds in classes three 6. Ideally, a wind turbine should be matched to the speed and frequency of the resource to maximize power production.
A assessment of the UStechnical potential for onshore wind found nearly 33, TWh of potential, which is equivalent to 8 times the total USpower use in [ 5 ].
Wind power - Wikipedia
National Renewable Energy Laboratory NREL Though no projects have yet been installed in the United States, the wind resources located offshore also offer great potential, with the additional advantage of being located close to highly dense coastal population centers. The technical potential for offshore wind in the USis nearly 17, TW, four times the total USpower use in [ 6 ].
Several factors can affect wind speed and the ability of a turbine to generate more power. For example, wind speed increases as the height from the ground increases. In order to take advantage of this potential at higher elevations, the rotors of the newest wind turbines can now reach heights up to meters [ 8 ].
In addition to height, the power in the wind varies with temperature and altitude, both of which affect the air density.
Winter winds in Minnesota will carry more power than summer winds of the same speed high in the passes of southern California. The more the wind blows, the more power will be produced by wind turbines.
But, of course, the wind does not blow consistently all the time. The term used to describe this is "capacity factor," which is simply the amount of power a turbine actually produces over a period of time divided by the amount of power it could have produced if it had run at its full rated capacity over that time period.
A more precise measurement of output is the "specific yield. Overall, wind turbines capture between 20 and 40 percent of the energy in the wind. If the turbine has blades that are 40 meters long, for a total swept area of 5, square meters, the power output will be about 5. An increase in blade length, which in turn increases the swept area, can have a significant effect on the amount of power output from a wind turbine.
SBC Energy Institute Another factor in the cost of wind power is the distance of the turbines from transmission lines. Some large windy areas, particularly in rural parts of the High Plains and Rocky Mountains, have enormous potential for energy production, although they have been out of reach for development because of their distance from load centers. A final consideration for a wind resource is the seasonal and daily variation in wind speed. If the wind blows during periods of peak power demand, power from a wind farm will be valued more highly than if it blows in off-peak periods.
In California, for example, high temperatures in the central valley and low coastal temperatures near San Francisco cause powerful winds to blow across the Altamont Pass in the summer, a period of high power demand.
Addressing the variability of wind power Dealing with the variability of wind on a large scale is by no means insurmountable for electric utilities. Grid operators must already adjust to constant changes in electricity demand, turning power plants on and off, and varying their output second-by-second as power use rises and falls. Operators always need to keep power plants in reserve to meet unexpected surges or drops in demand, as well as power plant and transmission line outages.
As a result, operators do not need to respond to changes in wind output at each wind facility. In addition, the wind is always blowing somewhere, so distributing wind turbines across a broad geographic area helps smooth out the variability of the resource.
In practice, many utilities are already demonstrating that wind can make a significant contribution to their electric supply without reliability problems. Xcel Energy, which serves nearly 3. In Colorado, Xcel recently relied on wind power to provide more than 50 percent of its electricity on several nights when winds were strong and power demand was low.
Xcel has also produced 37 percent of its electricity from wind power in Minnesota under similar conditions [ 10 ]. There are also several areas in Europe where wind power already supplies more than 20 percent of the electricity with no adverse effects on system reliability. For instance, three states in Germany have wind electricity penetrations of at least 40 percent [ 11 ].
The challenge of integrating wind energy into the electric grid can increase costs, but not by much. Extensive engineering studies by utilities in several USregions, as well as actual operating experience in Europe have found that even with up to 20 percent penetration, the grid integration costs add only up to about 10 percent of the wholesale cost of the wind generation.
However, because wind has low variable costs, it can reduce overall system operating costs by displacing the output of units with higher operating costs e.
Increasing our use of wind power can actually contribute to a more reliable electric system. This gives grid operators greater flexibility to respond to such events.
Promising developments in storage technology could also improve reliability in the future, though there is plenty of room to greatly expand wind use without storage for at least the next couple of decades.
The mechanics of wind turbines Modern electric wind turbines come in a few different styles and many different sizes, depending on their use. The most common style, large or small, is the "horizontal axis design" with the axis of the blades horizontal to the ground.
On this turbine, two or three blades spin upwind of the tower that it sits on.
Small wind turbines are generally used for providing power off the grid, ranging from very small, watt turbines designed for charging up batteries on a sailboat, to kilowatt turbines that power dairy farms and remote villages.
Like old farm windmills, these small wind turbines often have tail fans that keep them oriented into the wind. Large wind turbines, most often used by utilities to provide power to a grid, range from kilowatts up to the enormous 3.
Inthe average land-based wind turbines had a capacity of 1. Utility-scale turbines are usually placed in groups or rows to take advantage of prime windy spots.
Wind "farms" like these can consist of a few or hundreds of turbines, providing enough power for tens of thousands of homes. From the outside, horizontal axis wind turbines consist of three big parts: The main components of a wind turbine are in the picture below.
Explanations of the various parts of a turbine as well as their functions are also discussed below. United States Coast Guard: Inside the Nacelle are the following: This rotating speed is increased to rpm speed required for the efficient functioning of the generator.
Radiator - cools down the Generator. Small shaft - connects Gear Box to the Generator Controller: Sizes of Wind Turbines There are various sizes of wind turbines for the different levels of needs: Large wind turbines can be used to supplement national electricity supply by combining the turbines to the national grid.
Small scale uses like supply to homes and farms can be met with smaller turbines either connected to electricity grid or powered locally.
- Wind Energy - Using the Power of Wind
- There was a problem providing the content you requested
- How Wind Energy Works
Is Wind Energy Renewable? Wind energy is a renewable resource. A renewable resource is a resource that is able to be replaced or replenished, either by the earth's natural processes or by human action within a lifespan.
Wind energy is available at varying proportions almost everywhere on earth. It cannot be depleted unlike the conventional fossil fuel based energy resources. Wind energy is a clean energy resource, compared to fossil fuels coal, crude oil and natural gas.
It is believed that each megawatt-hour MWh of electricity that is generated by wind energy helps to reduce the 0. Setbacks of Wind Power Wind Turbines: Wind power has some setbacks. Some of these setbacks and their possible mitigations are: Obstruction of human activities - Wind farm could obstruct human activities if placed in low altitudes. The mitigation for this setback is to erect turbines at high altitudes.
Obstruction of Bird's path - Birds and other flying objects get killed if they fly past a wind turbine farm; birds migratory path are altered in the long run. This can possibly be mitigated by studying the pattern and path of birds' migration prior to erecting a wind farm. The graph of power output by a wind turbine relative to the speed of the wind is as shown below.
A power system that solely relies on wind will lack power when the wind isn't flowing at all and when the speed is excessive.