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Although the princes, on adopting Islam, associated themselves with orthodox like all nomads, in symbiosis with the sedentary oasis-dwellers, and though some than adventurous episodes in their perpetual wandering, although in times of. An oasis is an area made fertile by a source of freshwater in an otherwise dry and arid region. Oases (more than one oasis) are irrigated by natural springs or other underground water sources. Some of the world's largest supplies of underground water exist beneath the Sahara Desert. I drove to Hassi, picked it up, and was on my way back when I noticed some long domed They were Tuaregs, real desert nomads, not just local oasis dwellers.
But for the dwindling number of desert dwellers, life in the dunes is business as usual. Scattered over the inhospitable desert sands of Northern Africa and the Middle East, roving packs of wanderers clad in kufeya and maser traditional head wraps roam.
These are the Bedouins. Originally stateless nomads, this roaming population has seen a steady decrease in population as time and modernisation have taken the globe by storm.
But for the remaining Bedouins who still call the deserts of places like Sudan, Egypt, Oman, Iran and a number of other African and West Asian nations home, an important facet of life is carrying on the traditions of long-engrained desert-faring ancestors.
An anomaly of sorts, this broad group of people, which is broken down into mostly smaller familial lines and groups, has made that which most avoid, the desert, their livelihood. Rejecting agricultural and industrial society, the Bedouins rely on animal herding—typically that of goats, camels, and, to a lesser extent, cattle, in Northern Africa—for sustenance. Trading in wools and milk has been a backbone of the now semi-nomadic society, but in the early years much of the earnings were made by acting as remote border patrols, for-hire militiamen, desert raiders and desert guides.
With the recent boom in desert tourism, however, there is a renewed focus not only on Bedouin desert knowledge, but also on the traditional ways of life. A Bedouin man clad in traditional desert garb sits in front of his cattle. Herding is a traditional way of life for Bedouins stretching from Northern Africa to the Middle East, and usually revolves around cattle, goats and camels.
Borne from the traditions of old, the belief is that receiving a guest is a great honour, and one that should be treated with great respect. Selecting plants and domesticating animals, cultivating and farming, modifying the natural environment in order to make it more productive — these were the changes that took place throughout the Neolithic millennia. Sophisticated knowledge, required to ensure the survival of ever-growing communities, stratifies and consolidates itself in the face of increasingly adverse climatic conditions.
In fact, the earth is beginning to warm up again, little by little, while the Neolithic man assists and partly contributes to the destruction of that ancient post-glacial paradise.
Desert will gain the upper hand around 4, BC, wherever pastures will have taken over the forests and most of the surface waters have dried up or sunk underground.
That is how the soil, no longer protected by trees and subject to increasing temperatures and wind erosion, gives way to a combination of bare mountains and clusters of sterile sands.
New Sahara Research: the Lakes of Ounianga
Yann Arthus Bertrand Prehistoric enclosed sepulchre from the Neolithic period, which began some 10, years ago and extended when the first forms of writing appeared, 5, to 4, years ago. Dug into the hills, they are visible from far away: Only men were buried there, laid on their side, with their heads facing east. The Oases Civilization After escaping the ecological disaster caused by climate change and the depletion of natural resources, starting from 4, BC, the late-Neolithic communities are forced to learn from their original mistake.
They will therefore develop and fine-tune new practices for new survival strategies, and this is how — in the shadow of a primordial catastrophe which bears the seeds of rebirth — the Oases civilization will arise.
These are the areas where Sumerian and Egyptian organized states will rise to greatness, thanks to large-scale water management techniques, which will earn them the name of Hydraulic empires. It is emblematic of a civilization that goes beyond the borders of modern states, while remaining faithful to the dictum of tolerance and welcoming spirit toward foreigners.
The tea ceremony, in accordance with tradition, has to last one hour and a half. Within this framework the gestures follow a ritual that has a precise aesthetic code and the exchanges between participants happen to be inside the magic circle of the intimacy created by this special occasion.
Poetry, songs and proverbs bear witness to the pleasure and serenity offered by each tea drinking session, both among nomadic and sedentary people. After having long been a beverage reserved for the privileged classes, mint tea has been adopted at all levels of society. Hydraulic Empires During the Bronze Age the Egyptian and Sumerian civilizations — founded along the river basins on alluvial deposits of silt, loess and sand — develop their great monumental architecture, around 3, BC.
This happened applying the experience acquired from building dams and canals to irrigate their land. The excavated material is in fact the raw earth used for the first pyramids, a direct evolution, both in Africa and Mesopotamia, of the Neolithic building techniques used for dykes and embankments.
New Sahara Research: the Lakes of Ounianga - SPIEGEL ONLINE
The major projects of the great Reigns, which required a huge amount of workforce that ended up settling in the area, create the circumstances for the establishment of the social basis of the ancient empires.
Administrative bureaucracy and a progressive centralisation of power are born that way, the very opposite of the social economic model of the Oases civilization. The construction seems to represent the transition point between the early stepped pyramids and the great Giza monuments. Emerging from its mound of rubble like a huge bizarre tower, only three of the original eight steps are still visible today.
The First Oases All around the depressions, the basins of thaw lakes formed at the end of the last Ice Age, at this stage turned into salt marshes, Saharan populations of the late Neolithic settle on the highlands. The Phoenix Dactylifera — the mainstay of the Oasis and its agri-pastoral economy — is also definitely cultivated along the shores of the Persian Gulf, as early as 3, BC. It appears in Bahrain the ancient Dilmun and in Oman the ancient kingdom of Magan on artificially terraced and irrigated areas, where ancient water catchment systems enable early forms of agriculture.
A similar water system, known as Qanat, is most likely to have existed from an earlier time in Iran.