Ten parallels between the telegraph and the Internet in international politics | DiploFoundation
This post will draw ten political parallels between the telegraph and the diplomacy of close geo-strategic relations with the United Kingdom. Both the telegraph and the telephone rely on the same basic principle found in an The only difference is that the audio speaker's magnet switches on and off. A telephone, or phone, is a telecommunications device that permits two or more users to . Innocenzo Manzetti first mooted the idea of a "speaking telegraph" or Telegraph", describing communication of voice between two people by wire. . The circuit diagram of the model shows the direct connection of the.
Edison was granted patentfor a carbon granules transmitter in Early commercial instruments Early telephones were technically diverse. Some used a water microphonesome had a metal diaphragm that induced current in an electromagnet wound around a permanent magnet, and some were dynamic — their diaphragm vibrated a coil of wire in the field of a permanent magnet or the coil vibrated the diaphragm.
The sound-powered dynamic variants survived in small numbers through the 20th century in military and maritime applications, where its ability to create its own electrical power was crucial.
The Edison patents kept the Bell monopoly viable into the 20th century, by which time the network was more important than the instrument. Early telephones were locally powered, using either a dynamic transmitter or by the powering of a transmitter with a local battery. One of the jobs of outside plant personnel was to visit each telephone periodically to inspect the battery. During the 20th century, telephones powered from the telephone exchange over the same wires that carried the voice signals became common.
Early telephones used a single wire for the subscriber's line, with ground return used to complete the circuit as used in telegraphs. The earliest dynamic telephones also had only one port opening for sound, with the user alternately listening and speaking or rather, shouting into the same hole.
Sometimes the instruments were operated in pairs at each end, making conversation more convenient but also more expensive. At first, the benefits of a telephone exchange were not exploited. Instead telephones were leased in pairs to a subscriberwho had to arrange for a telegraph contractor to construct a line between them, for example between a home and a shop.
The first electric telegraph in 1837 revolutionised communications
Users who wanted the ability to speak to several different locations would need to obtain and set up three or four pairs of telephones. Western Unionalready using telegraph exchanges, quickly extended the principle to its telephones in New York City and San Franciscoand Bell was not slow in appreciating the potential. Signalling began in an appropriately primitive manner. The user alerted the other end, or the exchange operatorby whistling into the transmitter. Exchange operation soon resulted in telephones being equipped with a bell in a ringer boxfirst operated over a second wire, and later over the same wire, but with a condenser capacitor in series with the bell coil to allow the AC ringer signal through while still blocking DC keeping the phone " on hook ".
Telephones connected to the earliest Strowger switch automatic exchanges had seven wires, one for the knife switchone for each telegraph keyone for the bell, one for the push-button and two for speaking.
Large wall telephones in the early 20th century usually incorporated the bell, and separate bell boxes for desk phones dwindled away in the middle of the century.
Rural and other telephones that were not on a common battery exchange had a magneto hand-cranked generator to produce a high voltage alternating signal to ring the bells of other telephones on the line and to alert the operator. As a result, Russia lagged far behind the other major powers, and during World War I this proved disastrous; Russian telegraph lines were too poor to accommodate the communication needs of the Russian army. In the Internet era, many censorship and filtering techniques aim to control the social and political impact of the Internet.
In addition, cybersecurity threats frighten people and institutionsespecially in tech-laggard  countries, making them techno-suspicious and turning them away from fully benefiting from the potential of the Internet. Privacy in the historical kaleidoscope At the International Telecommunication Union ITU conference held in St Petersburg, one of the most controversial issues was the control of the content of telegraphic communication.
Telephone - Wikipedia
While conference participants from the USA and the UK promoted the principle of the privacy of telegraphic correspondence, Russia and Germany insisted on limiting this privacy in order to protect state security, public order, and public morality. A compromise was reached through an age-old diplomatic technique: While Article 2 of the St Petersburg Convention guaranteed the privacy of telegraphic communication, Article 7 limited this privacy and introduced the possibility of state censorship.
The geometry of discussion about privacy has changed in the Internet era. Today, Europe is the strongest promoter of privacy and data protection, while the USA has a much more relaxed attitude to the issue.
After the Snowden revelations, privacy and data protection are again in the focus of global communication politics, just as they were more than years ago. Open and free communication If he lived today, US President Wilson would be a hero of civil society, arguing for open and free communication.
Following the overall diplomatic approach to the post-war settlement, President Wilson advocated the establishment of open and free communication on a global level. His main proposal was to consider telecommunications a global public utility, instead of a tool in a global power game. Some cynical commentators argued that this noble US approach was aimed at creating a global policy space that could challenge UK dominance in the field of cable-based communication.
Shifting from technical management to high political agendas In its early days, the telegraph was discussed and managed mainly by technical experts. With more impact on geo-politics and security, it attained a prominent position on diplomatic agendas.
Today, we are noticing a shift in the politics of the Internet from telecomm ministries to ministries of foreign affairs, and to the offices of prime ministers and presidents. As with the telegraph a century ago, the Internet has evolved from pure technology to a phenomenon that is reshaping political and social life.
Ten parallels between the telegraph and the Internet in international politics
In September, Brazilian president Rousseff, in her speech at the UN General Assembly, outlined the main principles of Brazilian digital politics, increasingly supported by civil society and other players worldwide. The announcement of his appointment focuses on cybersecurity and Internet freedom, without mentioning technical issues.
Turf battles in the field of Internet politics have started in many countries, with diverse rules. In Brazil, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs has been a supporter of the multistakeholder approach, while the telecomm ministry and regulators were more inclined towards inter-governmental, ITU-centred processes. These are just a few examples, examples which can be found in other national governments as well. Again, there are historical parallels with the telegraph era.
So does the use of flags… or signal fires. An electrochemical telegraph suggests that an electrochemical device, like an electrochemical cell or set of cells -- a battery -- is used to power up a system that transmits those messages. By making and breaking an electrical circuit with a telegraph key, a solenoid on the other end can be made to "click" and be heard. All that is required is a system of "code" to transmit characters from one point to another down a telegraph wire between the key and the solenoid.
The battery provides the power. By using that same electrochemical source, a light could be powered up using the key.
With the light and the same code used in sending messages over a wire, an individual could communicate between two points without a wire.
Ships at sea could communicate with that light though they usually use ship's power instead of a batteryor two scouts on a camping trip could communicate silently across a broad valley using flashlights. What is the difference between the typewriter and the telephone? The typewriter is a device used to type the words you wish to express in your communication.
A telephone merely allows to to speak to either the recipient of your message, or… an answering device such as voicemail or an answering machine. For phone conversations, the receiving parties can hear each other. Is the telegraph a telephone?