Mark knapp stages of relationship development

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mark knapp stages of relationship development

When it comes to the formation and development of relationships, it's no In this article, we talk about the five stages of Mark Knapp's model of. Mark L. Knapp and Anita L. Vangelisti, Interpersonal Communication and Human development: relational partners do not always go through the stages. History Mark.l Knapp (born on July 12th, ) is a renowned teaching model for relational enhancement which routes the interpersonal development between. stages are Knapp's relationship escalation model and Knapp's relationship.

Foundations of Relationships

In this stage, individuals are trying to display their best selves. Also, we are observing the other person to learn about them and, therefore, reduce our own uncertainty.

Physical appearance often plays a big role in this stage when it comes to forming first impressions. The methods and messages used to initiate communication vary based on: The individuals use this stage to explore and get a feel for the relationship as well as one another. At this stage, relationships are generally pleasant, casual, and uncritical. Knapp has long emphasized that most relationships will not progress past this stage.

In Knapp's Stages Of Relationship - Culture Libre

Whereas in the previous experimentation phase, conversation focused more on superficial topics such as discovering shared areas of interest and commonalities, in the intensifying stage the level of self-disclosure deepens.

The breadth of topics discussed broadens and the depth in which each individual feels comfortable discussing those topics with the other becomes intimate and personal. In this stage, certain behaviors, such as increasing one-on-one contact through more frequent communication through face to face encounters, text, or phone callsdoing favors for a partner or offering gifts as tokens of affection, requesting commitment from a partner through direct definitional bid, personalized verbal expressions of affection such as "I love you" or assigning pet names such as "babe," and suggestive actions such as flirtation, gazing, or touching, may all emerge as methods of intensifying the connection between the two people.

Essential to the intensifying stage are "secret tests" [6] performed by each individual to ascertain whether his or her overtures are actually helpful in their intensification efforts. These tests most often manifest themselves through: Endurance, in which a partner is placed in an unpleasant, inconvenient, or uncomfortable situation or respond to certain requests to determine his or her commitment to the relationship. Public presentation during which a partner is introduced under a particular label such as "boyfriend" or "girlfriend" to see if they are comfortable with being identified in this manner.

Separation, which tests whether communication and feelings of affection will continue despite an inability to physically be together. Third-party questioning, where one partner may attempt to find out the hidden feelings of the interested party indirectly by asking a friend to probe the person of interest for indication as to their depth of feeling and affection.

Triangle tests, in which one partner sees if they can elicit jealousy from the other partner when another person expresses interest in the person concocting the test. While all five of these methods are common methods of testing intensification efforts, it's important to note that endurance, separation, and triangle tests are generally the least constructive, and can even be destructive when it comes to building the relationship.

In addition to bonding, the integration stage makes up maintenance stage of a relationship. During this stage, the couple is fused and elements of their respective social identities, such as friends, belongings, and living spaces, are now shared.

mark knapp stages of relationship development

Other verbal and nonverbal manifestations of the integration include the couple seeing their relationship as special or unique in some way, the exchange of "trophies" for the other to wear or display, and potentially similarities in manner, dress, and verbal behavior can be seen.

This stage puts the relationship on public display and suggests that the relationship is exclusive. This stage often involves marriage or another type of public contract, though marriage is not necessary to successfully bond.

There is usually a turning point that happens in this stage that signals a change in the relationship, making the relationship intimate.

Reaching this stage does not guarantee that the relationship will remain bonded, though many intimate relationships will remain in this stage until divorce, death, or another type of separation. Differentiating[ edit ] Differentiating is a process of disengaging or uncoupling. Use the powerful connection and love you have in these early days to address any possible issues before they undermine your closeness.

Bonding Stage Now the two of you are fully integrated, and you develop a more formalized commitment through marriage or living together. Your friends and family view you as a committed couple. You may pool your financial resources, make joint decisions as a couple rather than as individualsand begin having children.

If you are in the bonding stage. Congratulations on reaching this important stage in your life. Fully committing to another person is a big step, and it means you have both navigated small and large hurdles in your developing relationship to reach this point. Having a bonded, loving, intimate relationship is not only deeply satisfying but adds to your health and longevity. Now your mission is to maintain your close connection and protect it from the inevitable challenges couples face in their lives together.

Be sure you are both committed to putting your relationship first, and that you have a plan in place to nurture your relationship and manage conflict in healthy ways.

Coming Apart Phase 6.

Knapp's relational development model

Differentiating Stage As time goes on and the years go by, the two of you begin to see one another more as individuals than as a couple. This happens as the demands and pressures of life pull you in different directions and create stress and resentments. The bubble of romance and infatuation has burst or is not longer impenetrable, and conflicts become more regular. If you are in the differentiating stage. It's very difficult to escape this stage, especially if you're a busy couple with children and career demands.

Differing needs and pressures compel you to take out your stresses on one another and protect your turf. It's imperative for the health of your relationship that you take action to heal the rifts and address the triggers for conflict. This is a great time to find a licensed relationship counselor to help you get back on track and save your relationship. Circumscribing Stage At this stage, you begin to pull apart even more. You set protective boundaries for yourself, communication devolves and becomes less and less intimate.

You may have your own lives, separate friends and activities, and separate spaces in your home. Differentiating is the reverse of integrating, as we and our reverts back to I and my. People may try to reboundary some of their life prior to the integrating of the current relationship, including other relationships or possessions.

Knapp's Relational Development Model

Circumscribing To circumscribe means to draw a line around something or put a boundary around it. Oxford English Dictionary Online, accessed September 13,http: So in the circumscribing stage Relational interaction stage where communication decreases and certain areas or subjects become restricted as individuals verbally close themselves off from each other.

Passive-aggressive behavior and the demand-withdrawal conflict pattern, which we discussed in Chapter 6 "Interpersonal Communication Processes"may occur more frequently in this stage.

mark knapp stages of relationship development

Once the increase in boundaries and decrease in communication becomes a pattern, the relationship further deteriorates toward stagnation. Stagnating During the stagnating stage Relational interaction stage where the relationship may come to a standstill, as individuals wait for the relationship to end. Outward communication may be avoided, but internal communication may be frequent. Avoiding Moving to the avoiding stage Relational interaction stage where people signal that they want to close down the lines of communication.

In a parent-child relationship, where the child is still dependent on the parent, or in a roommate situation, where a lease agreement prevents leaving, people may engage in cognitive dissociation, which means they mentally shut down and ignore the other person even though they are still physically copresent. Terminating The terminating stage Relational interaction stage where a relationship ends.

Termination can result from outside circumstances such as geographic separation or internal factors such as changing values or personalities that lead to a weakening of the bond. Termination exchanges involve some typical communicative elements and may begin with a summary message that recaps the relationship and provides a reason for the termination e. The summary message may be followed by a distance message that further communicates the relational drift that has occurred e.

You can use this time to explore your options and figure out if you want to go to college too or not.

mark knapp stages of relationship development

Finally, there is often a message regarding the possibility for future communication in the relationship e. Pearson,46— These ten stages of relational development provide insight into the complicated processes that affect relational formation and deterioration.

We also make decisions about our relationships by weighing costs and rewards. Social Exchange Theory Social exchange theory Theory that states we weigh the costs and rewards in our relationships.

Vangelisti and Daniel Perlman Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,38— Rewards are outcomes that we get from a relationship that benefit us in some way, while costs range from granting favors to providing emotional support.

When we do not receive the outcomes or rewards that we think we deserve, then we may negatively evaluate the relationship, or at least a given exchange or moment in the relationship, and view ourselves as being underbenefited.

mark knapp stages of relationship development

In an equitable relationship, costs and rewards are balanced, which usually leads to a positive evaluation of the relationship and satisfaction. Commitment and interdependence are important interpersonal and psychological dimensions of a relationship that relate to social exchange theory. Cambridge University Press, ,